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Location of Fort Devens Sudbury Training Annex in Massachusetts
Figure 1. Location of Fort Devens Sudbury Training Annex in Massachusetts

Study Areas
Figure 2. Study Areas

Surface Water and Groundwater Flow within STA Watersheds
Figure 3. Surface Water and Groundwater Flow within STA Watersheds

Groundwater Recharge Areas
Figure 4. Groundwater Recharge Areas

Study Areas within Watersheds and Potable Water Supplies
Figure 5. Study Areas within Watersheds and Potable Water Supplies

Monitoring Wells, Phase II
Figure 6. Monitoring Wells, Phase II

Existing Monitoring Wells, Lake Boon Drainage
Figure 7. Existing Monitoring Wells, Lake Boon Drainage

Monitoring Wells on STA property bordering Sudbury Road
Figure 8. Monitoring Wells on STA property bordering Sudbury Road

Chemical Structure of RDX
Figure 9. Chemical Structure of RDX


Table 1.

Principal Uses of the Sudbury Training Annex

NATICK PHASE 1958 - 1982

Table 1 Notes

Table 2.

Summary of Study Areas1
Number Area Name Waste Types Location
A1 Decontaminated Mustard Burial Area Clothing with Mustard Agent E3
A2 Demolition Ground I Explosives Residues D2,3
A3 General Dump Trash and Refuse E4
A4 Waste Dump Chemical Wastes/Construction Debris F4
A5 Solvent/Waste Dump Solvents, Canned Food C4
A6 Demolition Ground II Explosives Residues C3
A7 Old Gravel Pit Landfill Chemicals/Refuse, Burning C3
A8 Food Burial Area Food and Possibly Chemicals D3
A9 POL2 Burn Area POL2, Fuels D2
A10 Railroad Pit/UST3 Area POL2, Fuels C6
A11 Leach Field Sanitary Waste, Oil, Grease D6
A12 PCB4 Spill Remediation PCBs4 D7
P1 Bldg T223 UST3 Fuel E5
P2 Bldg T267 Fuel Spills Fuels/Pesticide E5
P3 Bldg T209 UST3 Heating Oil E5
P4 Bunker Drum Area 4 Drums, Unknown Contents D3
P5 Drum Storage in A3 Deteriorated Drums E4
P6 Puffer Pond Dump Area Chemicals E4
P7 Patrol Road Waste Area Chemicals D5
P8 Transformer Disposal in A7 Drums, Debris, Transformers C3
P9 Stream Dump Area (A7 & A9) Chemicals C,D3
P10 Confidence Course Dump Area Chemicals D3
P11 Bldg T405 Dump Area Chemicals, Drums D3
P12 Abandoned UST3 in A9 Petroleum products? D2
P13 MA Fire Fighting Academy Fuel Oil UST3 D3
P14 East Gate Dump Area Chemicals, Drums F4
P15 Navy Burning Ground P15 is actually study area P48 C6
P16 Chemical and Waste Storage Bunkers 302, 306, and 309 Chemicals, Chemical Waste E4
P17 Bldg T206 Cloth Burial Area Contaminated Cloth, Combat Gear, Drums E5
P18 Clothing Burial Area Contaminated? Cloth E4
P19 Clearing Tracked Area Unknown D2
P20 Burned Area and Drum Possible burn area, empty drum D3
P21 Dump Area Unknown C4
P22 Old Gravel Pit General Refuse B3
P23 Building T465 Drums Drums E3
P24 Cleared Area Unknown C3
P25 Bldg T463 Test Chamber Unknown C3
P26 Air Drop Zone Clearing Unknown D3
P27 Pyrotechnics Test Area Explosives Residues E3
P28 Rocket Range Explosives Residues D6
P29 Rocket Firing Range No evidence of disposal activities D3
P30 Proposed Test Area Unknown C4
P31 Old Dump Unknown C5
P32 Road and Railroad Intersection Unknown D7
P33 Ground Scar Unknown D6
P34 Main Gate Vegetation Stress None D5
P35 Main Gate Guard Shack Ground Stains, Stressed Vegetation, PCB4 D5
P36 Former Raytheon Building T104 Abandoned building, Unknown D7
P37 Building T106 UST3 Abandoned building, Unknown D7
P38 Railroad Inspection Pit Unknown D6
P39 Dump Area Drums, Debris, Unknown C6
P40 Building T452 Area Fuel Oil, Unknown C4
P41 Bunker 303 Pesticide/Herbicide Storage Pesticides, Herbicides E4
P42 Dump on Excessed Land Unknown E2
P43A&B Disturbed Areas Unknown E,F3
P44A&B Clearing by FEMA5 None, probable antennae field F3,4
P45 Burned Area by Outside Fence Unknown, Empty Drum E3
P46 Cleared/Burned and Dead Trees None D4
P47 Damaged Vegetation None E3
P48 Fuel Bladder Area Gasoline and Aviation Fuel C6
P49 Bunker 323 Drums Unknown D4
P50 Bunker 325 Drum Unknown D4
P51 White Pond Road Drum Unknown C4
P52 Dump Near FEMA5 Unknown F3
P53 Bldg T210 UST3 Heating Oil E5
P54 Bunkers 305, 307, 314 Chemical (Storage & Waste), Fuels E4
P55 Bunker 301 Cleared Area Unknown D5
P56 Bunker 313 Cleared Area Unknown E4
P57 Fumigant Test Bldg 449 Fumigants, Pesticides D3
P58 Sudbury Road Dump Unknown C4,5

1 The information cited in this table is from the Remedial Investigation Report (4). As environmental investigations at STA proceed, the number of study areas, site names and waste types may vary. ATSDR will review new information relating to public health evaluations at those study areas.
2 POL = Petroleum, Oil, and Lubricants
3 UST = Underground Storage Tank
4 PCB = Polychlorinated Biphenyls
5 FEMA = Federal Emergency Management Agency

Table 3A.

Trespassing at Selected Study Area
Study Area Access Restrictions Physical Hazards Surface Soil Contamination1 Comments2
A1 - Decontamination Mustard Burial Area Yes3 No Yes One to two dozen bags of clothing, decontaminated afer use in mustard agent testing, were buried. The only contamination found at A1 is a drum confirmation sample (surface soil).
A7 - Old Gravel Pit Landfill Yes4 - fenced October 1991 Yes Yes In the past, trespassers used the area for dirt biking and target practice. The area is now fenced. Surface soil contamination is limited to two drum confirmations and one localized diesel fuel spill.
A9 - POL Burn Area Yes4 No Yes The area is fenced but trespassing reportedly occurs. Fifteen surface soil samples (including a drum confirmation sample) were collected at A9. Although metals, pesticides, VOCs and SVOCs were detected in surface soil, only benzo[a]pyrene exceeded comparison values.
A11 - Leach Field Yes3 Yes No Building rubble and debris. A drum confirmaion sample was collected but contaminants were below comparison values.
A12 - PCB Spill Remediation Yes3 No Yes Potential past exposure to PCBs by persons scavenging parts or vandalizing transformers. PCB-contaminated soil was remediated in 1985.
P22 - Old Gravel Pit Yes3 - boundary fence improved in spring 1993 Yes No (nitroglycerin was detected but has no comparison value) The area, which contains metallic debris, has been used for dirt biking. A six-foot chain linked fence along the installation boundary now prevents access. Removal of limited surface soil and metallic debris is planned (40).
P32 - Road and Railroad Intersection Yes3 Yes Not sampled The area is used for dirt biking. Domestic trash dumping has occurred beyond installation boundary.
P36/37 - Former Raytheon Buildings T104 and T106 Yes4 - the buildings doorways have either been fenced or welded shut. Yes Not sampled The buildings contain physical hazards and asbestos. Trespassing is a problem. ATSDR recommened that the Army demolish the buildings (ATSDR Health Consultation, November 1992 - Appendix 8). Additional field investigations, including surface soil sampling, are planned for both study areas (40).
P45 - Burned Area by Outside Fence Yes3 Yes No A drum confirmation sample contained arsenic (260 ppm) in surface soil at a concentration below relevant comparison values. The arsenic level does exceed a comparison value for residential soils (85); however, current land use is NOT residential. Surface soil removal with confirmatory sampling is planned (40).
1 Only contaminants that were detected at concentrations exceeding comparison values are reported. Refer to Table 4 for specific contaminant concentrations.
2 References: March 1994 Phase II SI (40), July 1993 RI/SI report (4), June 1993 Phase II workplan (6) and ATSDR site observations (October 1992 and June 1993). Only surface soil data are presented because of possible contact by trespassers who enter these study areas. Complete sampling information is described in the previously referenced documents.
3 The perimeter of STA is fenced.
4 The Army has attempted to further restrict access to a few on-site study areas by installing additional fencing.

Table 3B.

Selected Study Areas with Public Access
Study Area Surface Soil Contamination1 Comments2
P7 - Patrol Road Waste Area A soil gas survey was done - no contaminants were detected. The reported chemical waste disposal area is overgrown with vegetation. Samples from test pits and groundwater do not contain contaminants at levels above comparison values.
P17 - Bldg T206 Cloth Burial Area Yes Wastes were buried. DDT and related compounds and arsenic (220 ppm) were detected in a drum confirmation sample but at concentrations below relevant comparison values. The arsenic level does exceed a comparison value for residential soils (85); however current land is NOT residential. Additional surface soil sampling is planned (104).
P31 - Old Dump Yes3

Sediment contained elevated metals (Table 8)3
The area is used for recreational dirt biking. A drum confirmation sample contained benzo[a]pyrene and lead at concentrations exceeding comparion values. Test pits in the area contain debris but, contaminant concentrations do not exceed comparison values. Removals and confirmatory sampling is planned (40, 104).
P34 - Vegetation Stress at Main Gate Not sampled No visible evidence of contamination. The area is associated with an underground gas pipeline.
P42 - Off-Site Dump No Contaminants were not detected in surface soil samples at the site (40).
P43 - A and B - Disturbed Areas/Strain Vegetation Stress Not Sampled During the October 1992 site visit, ATSDR staff walked the area which has several roads and trails through it. People appear to use the area because some trash (beverage cans) was seen. No evidence of contamination was observed. There is no indication from investigations of the area that past disposal of chemicals occurred.
P58 - small dump of domestic debris Yes Principally metals contamination, which appears limited to the wetland area. Also some polyaromatic hydrocarbon and total petroleum hydrocarbon contamination. A remedial investigation is recommended for the site (40).

1 Only contaminants that were detected at concentrations exceeding comparison values are reported.
2 References: Data from March 1994 Phase II SI (40), May 1994 MEP (104), or July 1993 RI/SI report (4) unless otherwise stated and ATSDR site observations (October 1992 and June 1993).
3 Data from sediment and surface water sampling at P31 and P58 are discussed in the Environmental Contamination Section that is headed Groundwater and Surface Water.

Table 4.

Contaminants1 in Surface Soil from Selected Study Areas2, 6
Area Surface Soil Contamination (0-6") Concentration (ppm) Comparison Value
Concentration (ppm) Reference 3
A1 lead* 650 500 ATSDR 19914
A7 DDT* 360 30 RMEG child
DDE* 86 3 CREG
PCB* 1.6 0.3 EMEG child
benzo(a)pyrene 2 0.1 CREG
A9 benzo(a)pyrene 0.29 0.1 CREG
A125 PCB 4 - 10 0.3 EMEG child
P31 benzo(a)pyrene* 0.38 0.1 CREG
lead* 7800 500 ASTDR 19914

1 Contaminant concentration in surface soil exceeds comparison value.
2 Either trespassing occurs in these areas or community members are concerned about potential site contamination. Data from OHM Corporation Draft Remedial Investigation Report February 1993.
3 See Appendix 7 for definitions
4 Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Impact on Public Health of Lead-Contaminated Soil at Superfund Sites. Atlanta: ATSDR, October 1991.
5 In 1985, 162.5 tons of PCB-contaminated soil was cleaned up to 4 ppm (isolated spots have 10 ppm)
6 Data from Phase II investigations are not included in this table but are discussed in the Environmental Contamination and Other Hazards section of the document.
* Drum confirmation samples are surface soil collected beneath drums to assess potential contamination caused by leaking.

Table 5.

STA Watersheds, Associated Study Areas, and Downgradient Drinking Water Supplies
Watershed Number Watershed Area Study Areas Drinking Water Supplies
1A Taylor Brook Above Honey Brook P6, P16, P27, P41, P43 A/B, P52, P54, P56
A3, A4, P5, P14, P18, P44 A/B, P46, P47, P49, P50, P55
Maynard town well #3 (TW1)1 - currently inactive. Maybard private wells on Old Puffer Road and Parker Street (RW1)2 are crossgradient.
1B Taylor Brook Below Honey Brook A1, A2, P11, P13, P23, P26, P42, P45
P4, P19, P20, P24, P25, P29, P30, P51
Contributes to watershed 3
2 Hop Brook Drainage A10, A11, A12, P28, P36, P37, P38, P39, P48
P7, P15, P32, P33
White Pond (Maynard potable water source).
Hudson town well (cranberry well) (TW2).
Hudson private wells on Concord Road and Parmenter Street (RW2).
3 Unnamed Tributary 1 to Assabet River (North End) A8, P9, P10, P57
A7, A9, P8, P12
Assabet River (surface water impact).
Maynard private wells on Riverside Park (a private road near the Assabet River bridge on White Pond Road [Old Lancaster Road]) (RW3).
4 Unnamed Tributary 2 to Assabet River (Northwest End) A6, P22
Assabet River (surface water impact).
Stow private wells on Thicket Circle, Wildwood Road and Lakewood Road (RW4).
5 Lake Boon Drainage A5, P31, P40, P58 Stow/Hudson private wells on Lake Boon. Dawes Road in Stow is the closest to STA (RW5).
6 Run Brook (Willis Pond) Drainage P1, P2, P3
P17, P34, P35, P53
Sudbury town well #3 (TW3).
Sudbury private wells. There are a few homes around Willis Pond (RW6) and along Maynard Road (rt 27) near Willis Hill (RW7). There are also 1 or 2 homes along Hudson Road near Crystal Lake (RW8).
Contributes to watershed 2.

Reference: (5):
NOTE: Bold denotes Ecology and Environmental, Inc. June 93 Study Areas (5).
    Plain denotes additional sites to complete Study Areas.
1 TW refers to town wells on Figure 5
2 RW refers to residential Wells on Figure 5

Table 6.

Contaminants1 in Groundwater from STA Potable and Monitoring Wells5
Watershed Number Location2 Chemical Maximum or range of concentration in µg/L and (frequency of detection)3 Comparison value
Concentration in µg/L Reference4
1A A3, A4, P14, P44A, P44B, FW Manganese 85-706 (9/13 MW)
77-442 (3/4 OS)
50 RMEG (Child)
A4 Lead 190 15 MCL
potable wells Iron 1000 300 2ºDWS
potable wells
Iron 512,2640 (2/4 OS) 300 2ºDWS
Maynard Test
Well 14, P43B
14-90 (well 14)
9.8 (MW)
2 A11, P7, P48, FW  Manganese 52-1700 (8/16) 50 RMEG (Child)
Iron 626-5200 (4/16 MW) 300 2ºDWS
Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate 17 (1/16) 6 MCL
3 potable well Selenium 30 (OS) 10 MA DWS
DM9A 1,3,5-Trinitrobenzene 19.3 0.5 RMEG (Child)
2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene 14.6 5 RMEG (Child)
5 A5, P40, FW Manganese 105-1000 (8/10 MW) 50 RMEG (Child)
P40 Iron 369 300 2ºDWS
Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) 30 5 MCL

1 Contaminant concentration in groundwater exceed comparison value. Source of data is the Remedial Investigation report (4,14).
2 Study areas have alphanumeric designations (e.g., A3). FW denotes facility-wide groundwater monitoring not associated with a specific study area. Potable well(s) are not associated with a specific study area.
3 Number of wells positive for the indicated chemical (for any sampling date)/total number of wells in the watershed. MW = monitoring wells; OS = on-site potable wells.
4 Definitions of comparions values appear in Appendix 7
5 Groundwater data from Phase II investigations are not included in this table but are discussed in the Environmental Contamination and Others Hazards section of the document.

Table 7.

STA Phase II Groundwater Monitoring Wells1
Watershed Number Location
1A 1* A4: One MW is immediately downgradient of the depression at the southwestern end of the study area to confirm earlier detections of lead and assess the potential for migration toward Maynard residential wells.
1B 10 A2: One MW is between Taylor Brook and the two berms that encircle the area that was apparently used for the destruction of reject ammunition, rockets, and mortars. The MW location will be hydraulically downgradient of the disposal and destruction area and will provide information on potential groundwater contamination entering Taylor Brook.
P11: One MW is hydraulically downgradient of exisiting MWs OHM-P11-32 and 33 to assess the potential for contaminant migraton through groundwater toward the Assabet River and Maynard residential wells.
P13: Four MWs are hydraulically downgradient of the study area to assess the potential for groundwater contaminant migration toward the Assabet River and Maynard residential wells.
P23: One MW is hydraulically downgradient of the site and between Building T465 and Honey Brook (the nearest surface water to the area of concern), to asses the potential for contaminant migration.
P26: Three MWs will be installed hydraulically downgradient of the study area, along the southeastern edge of the air drop zone as it borders Honey Brook. The MWs will be used to assess the potential for contaminant migration through groundwater toward Honey Brook.
2 6 P36: Two MWs are hydraulically downgradient and one upgradient of the site and Building T104, to assess the possibility of groundwater contamination due to the unknown nature of past site activities.
P37: Two MWs are hydraulically downgradient and one upgradient of the site, Building T106 and its associated UST, to assess the possibility of groundwater contamination due to the unknown nature of past site activities.
3 1 P57: A MW is between the demolished building and the downgradient wetlands to detect potential groundwater contamination.
4* A7: One MW is adjacent to the study area perimeter fence and will determine the potential for migration of chlorinated pesticides downgradient of a known source area and toward the Assabet River.
A9: Two MWs are between the study area and the Assabet River. Domestic water wells are along the river.
4 3 A6: One MW is downhill from the site in areas where surface drainage tends to soak into the ground to assess the impact, if any, of past site activities on groundwater.
P22: One MW is downgradient from the gravel pit, to assess potential groundwater contamination migrating toward Stow residential wells.
5 3 P31: One MW is between the study area and Boons Pond to detect potential contaminant migration toward Lake Boon and adjacent residential wells.
P58: A shallow MW and deep MW, located between the study area and Boons Pond, will monitor migration of contamination, if any, at the top of the water table and deeper in the aquifer beneath the study area.
6 1 P2: A MW is downgradient of the study area, between the area and the swamp to the southeast, to determine if past fuel spills have contaminated groundwater.

1 References: (5,6,40)           * OHM monitoring well (6)
Current monitoring wells: 75    Additional proposed wells: EE - 26 (5); OHM - 5 (6)

Table 8.

Lake Boon Drainage Sediment/Surface Water Contaminants Exceeding* Comparison Values
Study Area/location Contaminant Maximum or range of concentrations and sampling date/reference Background
Comparion Value
Four Town FOCUS
Draft RI 2/93
Concentration Reference5
Sediment (ppm)
P31/P58 - Lake Boon iron not reported 61000 4200-93000 (5/5) 3500-88200 None None
  lead 3760 1160 3.3-72 (5/5) 116-720 500 ATSDR 1991
Surface Water (ppb)
  iron 950 1370 97.8-3720 (5/5) 50-200 300 2o DWS
  lead not reported not reported 2-3.25 (4/5) <50 15 Action

* The contaminant concentration in both sediment and surface water are reported if either comparison value is exceeded.
1 Range of values for Boons Pond (station 1 and 2) and other Massachusett Lakes (48,56).
2 Single sample collected from a small wash by Four Town FOCUS and the National Toxics Campaign (86).
3 Single sample from a small wash (then designated as site 25, now grouped as either P31 or P58) (14).
4 Five samples (collected in May 1992) from P31 area draining to Lake Boon (14).
5 Definitions of comparison values appear in Appendix 7.

Table 9.

Surface Water Contaminants Exceeding Comparison Values6
Contaminant Location Maximum or range of concentration (ppb) and sampling date/reference Comparison Value
Four Town
endrin Puffer Pond     0.359 (1/8)2 0.2 MA DWS
bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate Assabet River     6.9-200 (3/3) 6 MA DWS
iron Puffer Pond     582-628 (8/8) 300 2° DWS
On-site Streams3     329-720 (6/7)
Assabet River     516-595 (3/3)
Willis Pond     344-467 (3/3)
Lake Boon4 950 1370 97.8-3720 (5/5)
manganese On-site stream5      67.4 (1/7) 50 2° DWS
Lake Boon   221 112-665 (5/5)
  1. Definitions of comparison values appear in Appendix 7
  2. Number of positive samples/total samples
  3. On-site streams include Honey Brook (FWISW8), a small unnamed tributary near Area P26 (FWISW9), Taylor Brook (FWISW10 - FWISW11), northern end of Puffer Pond wetland (FWISW12), a southern end of Puffer Pond wetland (FWISW13), and an unnamed tributary west of White Pond Road near Area P26 (FWISW17).
  4. 12/4/90 sample collected from a small wash by Four Town FOCUS and the National Toxics Campaign (86).
    4/91 sample from a small wash (then designated as site 25, now grouped as either P31 or P58) (14).
    5/92 sampling from P31 (14).
  5. Sample location was Honey Brook (FWISW8)
  6. Data from Phase II investigations are not included in this table but are discussed in the Environmental Contamination and Other Hazards section of the document.

Table 10.

Massachusetts Children in Special Education Programs; School Year 1989-1990*
Town: Total Students:
Hudson 467
Maynard 225
Stow 76
Sudbury 281
Middlesex County 28,007
*Source: Massachusetts Department of Education School System Summary Report for 1989-1990

Table 11.

Hudson Public Schools
Grade Total Enrollment Age (years) Special Needs Students
Kindergarten 242 3,4,5 32
(3 schools)
1221 6-11 269
7, 8 371 12-14 123
9-12 537 15-18
Total 2371 Total 497
19 students from the district receive special education services in other districts

Table 12.

Sudbury Public Schools
Grades Total Enrollment Age (years) Special Needs Students
K - 8 2005* 3 - 14 320
*This includes 20 children who attend out-of-district programs for special education.

Table 13.

Maynard Public Schools
Grades Total Enrolled Special Needs Students
Pre-kindergarten (15) 15
K - 4 640 103
5 - 8 367 82
9 - 12 276 51
Total 1283 (1298) 251

Table 14.

Stow Public Schools
Grades Total Enrolled Special Needs Students
Kindergarten 88 9
1 - 6 410 78
7 - 8 124 19
9 - 12* 211 37
Total 833 106#
* Report from Nashoba Regional High School

# There are 7 students receiving Special education services who are in the 3,4 year old age group that are not included in this total of 106.


ATSDR reviewed available documents that contain information abouthistorical activities and environmental investigations done atSTA. The documents are listed chronologically.

U.S. Army Quartermaster Research and Engineering Center, Natick,MA. Allocation of Igloos at Maynard Quartermaster Test Activity,Maynard, MA. August 6, 1958.

U.S. Army Natick Research and Development Command. Analysis ofExisting Facilities/Environmental Assessment Report. November1977.

US Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency. InstallationAssessment of U.S. Army Natick Research and Development Command,Report No. 170. May 1980.

U.S. Army Environmental Hygiene Agency. Phase 2 Solid WasteManagement Consultation No. 38-26-8260-83, Hydrogeologic andSubsurface Investigation, Fort Devens, MA. May 1983.

Dames and Moore. Remedial Investigation of Sudbury Annex,Massachusetts. July 1986 and November 1986.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Hazard Ranking SystemEvaluation, Sudbury Annex Facility, Sudbury, MA. December 1988.

Zecco, Inc. Environment Reports 1, 2, 3 and 4. Fire Test Area. Fort Devens, Sudbury Training Center. 1988 and 1989.

No author listed. Laboratory Test Results - Fort Devens Annex,Lake Boone Drinking Water Recharge Area, Stow, Massachusetts. December 4, 1990.

GZA Geoenvironmental, Inc. Final Report, Site Investigation, 100-Acre Parcel of Excessed Natick Lab Annex Property, Maynard, MA. US Army Corps of Engineers. March 4, 1991.

US Army Toxics and Hazardous Substance Agency. Sampling of WhitePond. April 17, 1991.

US Army Environmental Hygiene Agency. Receiving Water BiologicalStudy No. 32-24-H606-91 Environmental Sampling of Puffer PondSudbury Annex Fort Devens, MA. April 29-30, 1991.

SEA Consultants, Inc. Environmental Assessment/ EnvironmentalReport/Environmental Impact Report. April 1991.

Harrington S and Gouchoe S. Site Investigations at the FortDevens Sudbury Annex. January 8, 1992.

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Draft Master Environmental Plan,Fort Devens Sudbury Training Annex, MA. May 1991 and January1992.

OHM Corporation. Site/Remedial Investigation Report. FortDevens Sudbury Training Annex, MA. February and July 1993.

OHM Corporation. Draft Final Addendum to the Final TechnicalPlans Phase II Feasibility Study. Fort Devens Sudbury TrainingAnnex, MA. June 1993.

OHM Corporation. Puffer Pond Fish Study, Draft Final, FortDevens Sudbury Training Annex, MA. June 1993.

Ecology and Environment, Inc. Technical Plan Addenda, Phase IISite Inspections, Remedial Investigation, Fort Devens SudburyTraining Annex, MA. June and October 1993.

OHM Remediation Services Corporation. Decision Documents, NoFurther Action Under Comprehensive Environmental Response,Compensation, and Liability Act for Study Areas P15, P29, P30,P44A and P44B, P46, P47, P53 and P55. October and December 1993.

OHM Corporation. Final Site/Remedial Investigation Report, FortDevens Sudbury Training Annex, Massachusetts. January 1994.

Ecology and Environment, Inc. Phase II Site InvestigationsReport, Fort Devens Sudbury Training Annex, Massachusetts. March1994.

OHM Remediation Services Corporation. Draft Decision Documents,No Further Action Under Comprehensive Environmental Response,Compensation, and Liability Act for Study Areas P14, P18, P21,P24, P32, P34 and P50. December 1993 and May 1994.

Ecology and Environment, Inc. Draft No Further Action DiscussionDocuments for Study Areas A6, P26, P40, P42, P43A/B, P48, P56 andP57. June 1994.


Of the 70 STA study areas, only those of potential public healthconcern are presented here. Based on available information, theremaining study areas identified on the Annex are not of publichealth concern at this time. However, ATSDR will reevaluate anysite that future data suggest is a public health threat.

There are two main public health issues at these sites. First,possible exposure of trespassers or persons using public lands,formerly part of STA, to surface soil contaminants or physicalhazards. Second, potential groundwater/ surface watercontamination may affect potable water sources or area surfacewaters that are fished. The study areas described here have thegreatest potential for public health concern because of theirlocation and human activities in those areas. Descriptions ofthe study areas are given here. Evaluation of available samplingand analytical information are included in other portions of thisdocument.

Descriptions of study areas are primarily based on informationfrom the February and July 1993 Remedial Investigation reports(1,2), the April 1992 Work Plan (3), and the January 1992 MasterEnvironmental Plan (4). Site-specific observations made by ATSDRpersonnel during the March 1991 and October 1992 site visits toSTA are included as well. Study areas about which communitymembers are concerned are also included. Those concerns wereexpressed by citizens during October 1992 meetings with ATSDRstaff (5) and in Four Town FOCUS written comments on ATSDRsInitial Release Public Health Assessment for STA dated January1992 (6).

Study Area A1: Mustard Burial Area

The Mustard Burial Area contains clothing that was tested to findits absorptive properties for mustard agent. About 57 grams ofthe mustard agent was used for this testing that occurred between1965 and 1972. The clothing was decontaminated with bleach priorto burial. Disposal may have involved fewer than twenty-fourtrash bags of decontaminated clothing (1).

This site is about 100 feet from Patrol Road and about 500 feetdue east of Taylor Brook. It is accessed by a path overgrownwith vegetation. The Green Meadow Elementary School in Maynardis about 2,000 feet northeast of the site (6).

Study Area A2: Demolition Ground I

From 1942 to 1955, reject ammunition, mortars, and rockets weredestroyed at A2. Burnings were done on an eight foot squareconcrete pad. No records were available describing thequantities and types of materials involved. Piles of debris arevisible around a building on the site. Four drums were alsofound in the area (1).

This site is 500 feet west of Taylor Brook and 1,000 feet west ofArea A1. It is 300 feet from Patrol Road and can be accessed viaa rocky dirt road. Although no training exercises are currentlydone at STA, a cleared area about 2,000 feet south of A2 had beenpreviously used for that purpose.

Study Area A3: General Dump

This site is in an old gravel excavation in the northeast portionof the Annex and is accessible from Patrol Road. It was usedfrom 1957 to 1979 for dumping trash and refuse. Deteriorateddrums, construction debris and other general refuse at thesurface and in scattered piles were noted in this area. A smallpit covered with a wire mesh was also discovered.

Area P5, Drum Storage Area, has been included in theinvestigation of A3. Empty drums were found lying on their sidesin the woods about 150 feet southwest of the old gravel pit. The study area is about one-half mile from off-post wells (6);but, those wells are hydraulically upgradient (see Figure 5 inAppendix 1).

Area of Contamination A4: Waste Dump

The Waste Dump was used during the late 1960s to early 1970s forthe burial of unidentified chemical wastes. Small amounts ofconstruction debris have been dumped in this location since 1986. Drums may also have been buried in an area near the east gate. This area has also been used for training exercises.

A4 is near the northeast boundary of the installation. AlthoughA4 is less than one-half mile from off-post residential wells(6), those wells are hydraulically upgradient (see Figure 5 inAppendix 1).

Study Area A5: Solvent/Waste Dump

A trench-like excavation in this area was the burial site forlaboratory solvents from about 1973 to 1979. The trench isabout six feet by twelve feet by four feet. This excavated areais near the facility bunkers, 100 feet east of White Pond Road,north of Building T452 and south of Bunker 334. The area aroundA5 has been used for training exercises in the past (1,7).

The site is about 1 mile north of White Pond, a surface watersource of drinking water for the town of Maynard. A5 is withinone-half mile of off-post private wells on Lake Boon (6).

Study Area A6: Demolition Ground II

The area contains reinforced concrete test stalls used from 1942to 1950 for testing ammunition and explosives. The WatertownArsenal used the area as late as 1977 for testing of up to 3pounds of Class 1.1 explosives (bulk explosives that are notencased in any shell or projectile). In addition, rejectmunitions might have been destroyed in the area (1).

ATSDR staff members who visited the site consider the test stallsa physical hazard. The walls of the structure are over 10 feethigh and flank an open area in the middle. One of the walls isbuilt into a hill. Steel girders span the top of the teststructure (5).

Demolition Ground II is in a wet, marshy, and densely woodedarea. A dirt road leading to the area is overgrown withvegetation and barricaded where it intersects Patrol Road. During wet weather, a stream may be present in the area (1). Groundwater flows south to southwest in the area.

Area of Contamination A7: Old Gravel Pit/Laboratory Dump/GeneralRefuse Dump

This 20 acre area was a borrow source for road constructiongravel during installation development. Disposal of drums andother unidentified chemical containers at this location occurredbetween the late 1950s and 1970s. Both sides of the access roadare the areas most likely used. General refuse has been buriedat shallow depths since 1941. Burning of debris was alsoreported. The general public also used the site for unauthorizeddumping in the 1970s until access was restricted. Such dumpingresumed during the Dames and Moore Remedial Investigation of thearea until physical barriers were constructed.

Intermittent fencing on the north portion of the Annex hadallowed non-military motorcycle riders, reportedly children (6),access to the site as evidenced by tire tracks. An eight-foot,chain-linked fence was erected around Area A7 in October 1991(2,5). There are piles of exposed scrap metal and logs on thesurface of the site. The area was also used for target shootingas evidenced by empty shotgun casings (4,5).

This area is located northeast of the USAF Radar Station and isbounded on the north by Assabet River and on the south by PatrolRoad. The entrance to this area is by a dirt road going northfrom the patrol road. This road is slightly overgrown withvegetation and is 200 feet in length. Area P8, the transformerdisposal area, is on this site.

Study Area A8: Food Burial Area

Between 1968 and 1975, this 1-1/2 acre site, located acrossPatrol Road from the POL burning area, was used for the burial oflarge amounts of foodstuffs that had been used in preservationexperiments. These foodstuffs included irradiated meat products,weather-exposed field rations, and canned goods. Unidentifiedchemicals were possibly disposed in this area, too. In 1985, theMassachusetts Air National Guard and 3245th Civil Engineersconstructed an obstacle training course in Area A8 and the areaimmediately north of it.

The site is between White Pond Road and the Patrol Road in thenorthern area of the Annex. Area P10, the confidence course dumparea, is next to the site and will be investigated as part ofthis area.

Area of Contamination A9: POL Burning Area

This fenced site was used for product testing, flame-retardantclothing testing, and destruction of confiscated fireworks. FromOctober 1973 until December 1984, the Massachusetts Fire FightingAcademy used two bermed fire pits. The pits were first filledwith six inches of water then with fuel oil, and the contentswere ignited. Other fuel (JP-4) was also reportedly used.

Contaminated soils were removed from these two fire pits betweenSeptember, 1987 and July, 1988 to depths up to twenty-six feet. Soil within Area A9 was used to backfill the excavation.

The 7-acre site is north of the Patrol Road and east of Area A7. The entrance is near the Annex north gate. Grass and brush coverlarge sections of this area, while vegetation is stressed inremediated areas. Area P12, an abandoned underground storagetank (UST), is within Area A9 boundaries.

Study Area A10: Railroad Pit/Underground Tank Area

This concrete pit, under a section of railroad track in thesouthern portion of the Annex, was presumably used for locomotiveand equipment maintenance. Reportedly, the pit had been pumpedout and refilled with water. This area was used for automobileoil changes by housing residents and the general public whodiscarded engine oil into the pit.

Area A10 is 600 feet east of the west gate and 1,000 feet southof White Pond, which is a surface water source of potable waterfor the town of Maynard.

Study Area A11: Leaching Field

This leaching field was constructed in World War II for a barrackwhich no longer exists. An old meteorological laboratory isstill connected to the leach field. Water purification systems(filters and ion exchange) operate in an adjacent pumphouse andthe backwash water is discharged to the leach field.

Area A11 is less than one acre in size and is in the southernportion of the Annex 100 feet east of Diagonal Road. Reportedlylocal residents appear to have access to the area. Buildingrubble and debris were observed by ATSDR staff members during asite tour (5).

Study Area A12: PCB Spill Remediation Area

Area A12 was contaminated when 100-200 gallons of PCB-containingfluids spilled from transformers that were vandalized. DuringJuly 1985, about 162.7 tons of soil contaminated with PCBs wasexcavated from the area. The remediation at this site wasapproved by the Massachusetts Department of EnvironmentalProtection; however, current cleanup criteria are more stringentthan those used in 1985. Future evaluation of this area willaddress the appropriateness of the PCB cleanup criteria withrespect to projected land use (3,7).

Study Area P1: Underground Storage Tank (UST) Across fromBuilding 223

Buildings in this area were used for engineering and maintenancepurposes. An UST that contained fuel is suspected to be under anasphalt pad and may have been here as early as 1959. The area ison the south side of Patrol Road, north of the guard shack.

Study Area P2: Building T267 Fuel Spills

A single above-ground storage tank is believed to be the sourceof potential petroleum contamination in this former engineeringand maintenance area. Many small fuel spills occurred here. Drums are currently stored in this building. Surface soil wasremoved to a depth of 6-inches after a five gallon malathionspill occurred on the dirt floor. The date this spill occurredwas not reported. Area P2 is located on the south side of PatrolRoad and east of Area P1.

Study Area P3: Building T209 UST

This UST that contained heating oil for the former General'sQuarters is believed to have been abandoned ten years ago. Thebuilding was used by the Massachusetts State Police for training. The tank is behind Building T209 north of the driveway.

Study Area P5: Drum Storage by Area A3

This drum storage area is in a forested area between a swamp andArea A3. It can be accessed from Patrol Road. Area P5 isincluded as part of Area A3 (2).

Study Area P6: Puffer Pond Dump Area

Area P6 could have been used as a chemical dumping and burialarea. The vegetation is moderately dense forest. This area onthe north end of Puffer Pond. Groundwater flows east towardPuffer Pond and hydraulic connection exists between the surfaceand groundwater (7,8).

Study Area P7: Patrol Road Waste Area

Based on interviews with NARADCOM personnel and interpretation ofaerial photographs, P7 could have been used as a miscellaneouswaste chemical disposal area between 1940 and the 1950s. Currently the area is mostly overgrown with vegetation and only afew small areas are cleared. P7 is part of the Marlboro SudburyState Forest and is accessible by the public. The area is aboutone-half mile from White Pond and Lake Boon (3,6).

Study Area P8: Area A7 Possible Transformer Disposal

Area P8, the surface dump at the southeast end of Area A7 was apossible transformer disposal area.

Study Area P9: Stream Dump Area

Area P9 could have been used as a chemical dump and burial area. It is between Areas A7 and A9 on the north side of Patrol Road. Vegetation is moderately dense and a stream flows through thearea toward the Assabet River.

Study Area P10: Confidence Course Dump Area

A training confidence course was constructed in 1985 in Area A8,the Food Burial Area, and in the area immediately north of AreaA8. The area contains a wooden training structure, about 25 feethigh (5). A portion of A8, now designated as P10, could havebeen used for chemical disposal.

Study Area P11: White Pond Road Burial Area

Chemical dumping and burial may have occurred at Area P11. Abuilding in this area may have been used for ordnancesurveillance activities during the 1950s. Later the building andarea were used for defoliant, rodent, and insect research, andfor fiberglass and foam polymer structural research anddevelopment. Spray equipment for the structural research wascleaned by spraying cleaning solvent through the system out intothe air. Fifty to seventy-five drums (5 gallon cans and 55gallon drums) containing decontamination water were buried inAreas P4 and P14. Area P11 was also used by the MassachusettsFire Fighting Academy.

Area P11 is near the junction of White Pond Road and Puffer Road. The area around the buildings is mostly grassed, while thesouthern part is densely wooded (5). Area P11 is in an areaadjacent to two surface water drainage streams.

Study Area P12: Abandoned UST in Area A9

A pump apparatus for an underground storage tank (UST) was housedin a fenced-in metal shed east of the cloth test pit. The shedand fence were removed to assist in the UST removal; the shed wason a concrete slab. Visual evidence suggests that the UST isunder the concrete slab. A fill pipe and vent are set in theconcrete slab.

Study Area P13: Former Massachusetts Fire Fighting Academy

Area P13 was originally a farm that the Army acquired during the1940s. Later this area may have been used to conduct munitionsquality control inspection and testing. The Massachusetts AirNational Guard used this area for training exercises and storageof equipment from 1973-1978. Fuel oil was stored in several1,000-5,000 gallon USTs; annual consumption of fuel oil in thisarea is estimated at 55,000 gallons.

Since 1982 the Massachusetts Fire Fighting Academy (MFFA) hasused this area on a limited basis. Flammable liquid training isconducted about 12 times per year and car fire training isconducted 5 times per year. MFFA used poor housekeepingpractices when handling hazardous materials. Dead grass andstains were observed around the burning pan (3).

This area is south of the north gate and east of Area A8. AreaP13 lies between two surface water drainage streams. Potentialcontamination in this area could be from USTs and past firetraining activities.

Study Area P14: East Gate Burial/Dump Area

This area may have been used for the disposal of drummeddecontamination water and chemicals from polyurethane foam andfiberglass structure research at Area P11. The disposalactivities may have occurred between 1950s and 1960s.

P14 is a slightly elevated, wooded area surrounded by swampyterrain. An old stone well is adjacent to Patrol Road. The areais south of the property leased by the Federal EmergencyManagement Agency (FEMA) (2). Off-post residential wells arewithin about one-half mile of Area P14 (6).

Study Area P15: Navy Burning Ground

Although it was previously reported that Study Area P15 was usedas a burning ground (2), the Navy did not burn any material atSTA. Study Area P15 is actually the fuel bladder area, P48,which is described under that heading (9).

Study Area P17: Clothing Burial Area by Building T206

The area was used to bury contaminated cloth in 1960; but, norecord of what the contaminant was could be found (10). Duringthe early 1970s, truckloads of materials were buried in shallowdepressions (two to three feet deep). The buried materials wereclothes and combat gear originating from Natick Laboratoryresearch projects dealing with new products and battle damageassessment on equipment used by troops in Vietnam. Intervieweesdid not recall any contaminated materials or chemicals beingdisposed of in these areas. One drum was found in the area (2).

P17 is east of Building T206 on property that was transferredfrom the STA to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts on December 13,1976. The study area is in the Marlboro Sudbury State Forest(6).

Study Area P18: Cloth Burial Area

Contaminated clothing from research projects dealing with newproducts may have been buried in this area during the early1970s. This area is located west of Area P17 and is reportedlyaccessed by an overgrown road that originates from the PatrolRoad across from Building T267 (2).

Study Area P22: Old Gravel Pit

Area P22 has been a gravel pit from the 1940s to the present. There is no documentation that this area was used other than as ageneral refuse dump, but disposal of household quantities ofhazardous materials could have occurred. The area shows signs ofbeing used by the public for motorcycle riding, target shooting,and dumping of general household goods. ATSDR staff membersobserved metallic debris and evidence of unauthorized dumping inthe area (5).

This area can be accessed by a path which originates at PatrolRoad. The path from Patrol Road to the gravel pit is barricadedso that vehicle access is not possible. ATSDR personnel observedthat access to the site is possible from off-post (Boons Hillarea of Stow) (5). Although the Annex perimeter, in this area,was not fenced at the time of the site visit, the Army fenced thenorthwestern boundary in the spring of 1993 (11).

Study Area P23: Building T465 (Drums)

Area P23 is Building T465 and the surrounding area. It has beenused for testing of aerial delivery equipment and packagingmaterial. Scattered debris and several drums are in and aroundthe building. No visual ground stains or stressed vegetation areevident in the area (2,7).

Study Area P31: Old Dump

EPA identified this dump in 1982. Aerial photographs indicatethat the area has always been vegetated. The land has beenexcessed from the Annex and is now part of the Marlboro SudburyState Forest.

The area is at the intersection of Sudbury Road and White PondRoad. The cleared area has hills and valleys and is used bymotorcyclists for recreation. Residential wells are within one-quarter mile of the area.

Study Area P32: Road and Railroad Intersection

The area is on the southern border of STA at an abandonedcrossing of the old Boston and Maine Railroad and old MarlboroRoad. P32 is littered with debris, (a variety of automobileparts, a burned-out car, barbed wire and trash). There are alsodead trees and remnants of numerous small fires. The area hasbeen used by local residents for trash disposal and off-road dirtbiking.

Study Area P35: Main Gate Guard Shack

Several transformers, which may contain PCBs, are inside anelectrical utility room attached to the Guard Shack. Reportedly,some of the grass behind the building was stained and there ispossible stressed vegetation (2).

Study Area P36: Building T104

The former Raytheon Building T104 and surrounding area was usedfrom the 1960s until 1971 for research and development of missileguidance system, radar systems, and manufacturing electronicequipment for defense-related projects.

ATSDR staff members observed that the building was unsecured,contained abundant debris, and appeared structurally unsound (5). The building also contains asbestos (12). Evidence oftrespassing at P36 was also observed. Perimeter fencing is indisrepair and the Army has difficulty keeping trespassers off STAproperty. Residential areas are within one-half mile of thesite.

ATSDR wrote a health consultation in November 1992 recommendingthat the Army demolish the building (see Appendix 8). Thus far,the Army has blocked entrances to the building using welded steelbars and fencing (11).

Study Area P37: Building T106 UST

Building T106, which is about 100 yards from building T104, wasused by the Aero-Mechanical Engineering Division of the NatickLaboratories as a parachute building. Reference has been made toa 1,000 gallon UST in the building.

The building is in a similar state of disrepair as building T104in study area P36. T106 also contains asbestos and debris;evidence of trespassing was observed (5). A discussion of T106is included in the November 1992 ATSDR Health Consultation. TheArmy used chain-linked fence to block openings to T106 (11).

Study Area P38: Former Railroad Inspection Pit

The area is in the southern portion of the Annex about 1800 feetsoutheast of White Pond. A building foundation, believed to bethe inspection pit, is on the west side of the classificationyard access road. The pit might have been used for disposal ofwaste oils and fuels.

The foundation is filled with soil. West of the foundation is adepression with little vegetation, and there is debris (woodenbeams, a metal pole, and some concrete) in the woods. A fewareas north of the foundation also lack vegetation and havewooden debris (1).

Study Area P39: Dump Area

Scattered debris and partially buried drums were observed in thisarea. P39 is in the southern portion of the Annex, north of AreaA10. The site is in a swampy area and is about 1000 feet fromWhite Pond, a surface water source of potable water for the townof Maynard. P39 is accessible to local residents (2,6).

Study Area P40: Building T452 Area

Building T452 is a bungalow that was converted into an animaltesting laboratory by NARADCOM in the 1960's. It has been usedas a guest house, but is currently unoccupied. Spills of No. 2fuel oil have occurred in the past when the heating oil storagetank in the building's basement overflowed (2).

Study Area 41: Bunker 303 - Pesticide/Herbicide Storage

The bunker was used in the past for storage of pesticides (DDT)and herbicides (Ureabor). The Ureabor was used for weed controlalong the fence line until 1973. In 1977 about 1500 pounds ofthe herbicide was stored in the bunker; a large number of the 50pound bags were ripped and a considerable amount of material hadspilled on the floor (2). Ureabor is no longer stored on STA(11).

Study Area P48: Fuel Bladder Area

Area P48 was used for testing Petroleum, Oil, and Lubricant (POL)bladders from 1959 to 1965. The bladders, ranging up to 500gallons in size, were partially buried. The bladders reportedlycontained gasoline and aviation fuel. Currently a portion of thearea is fenced and used for testing the weather resistance ofclothing materials.

Area P48 is in the southern portion of the Annex. It is borderedby Bruen Road on the west and to the north and east by forest(2). It is approximately 700 feet south of White Pond (6).

Study Area P57: Fumigant Test Bldg 449

P57 is a newly listed study area that is the site of a demolishedbuilding, S449. The former Press House, part of the Food ScienceLaboratory, was used for the study of effects of toxic fumigantson stored product insecticides (13). Sampling of soil,groundwater, and sediment and surface water from an adjacentwetland are planned (7).

Study Area P58: Sudbury Road Dump

The site is a swampy area adjacent to Sudbury Road and may draininto Lake Boon during periods of high water flow. A car battery,paint cans, and other metal and glass debris have been found inthe area. The debris appears to be household trash, many bottlesappear to be from the 1930's. The site was originallyinvestigated as part of P31 but is now listed as P58, SudburyRoad Dump (14).


  1. OHM Corporation. Site/Remedial Investigation Report, FortDevens Sudbury Training Annex, Massachusetts. February1993.

  2. OHM Corporation. Site/Remedial Investigation Report, FortDevens Sudbury Training Annex, Massachusetts. July 1993.

  3. OHM Corporation. Work Plan. Fort Devens Sudbury TrainingAnnex, Massachusetts. April 1992.

  4. OHM Corporation. Master Environmental Plan, Fort DevensSudbury Training Annex, Massachusetts. January 1992.

  5. ATSDR. Trip Report for Public Availability Sessions andSite Visit to the Sudbury Training Annex. Atlanta: October16, 1992.

  6. Four Town FOCUS. Comments on the Fort Devens SudburyTraining Annex Initial Release Public Health Assessmentdated January 22, 1992. May 26, 1992.

  7. Ecology and Environment, Inc. Technical Plan Addenda, PhaseII Site Inspections, Remedial Investigation, Fort DevensSudbury Training Annex, Massachusetts. June 1993.

  8. OHM Corporation. Master Environmental Plan, Fort DevensSudbury Training Annex, Massachusetts. October 1991.

  9. OHM Corporation. Notes from Sudbury Training Annex Meeting. June 1, 1993.

  10. US Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency. InstallationAssessment of U.S. Army Natick Research and DevelopmentCommand, Report No. 170. May 1980.

  11. ATSDR. Record of Activity for telephone communication: Lorna Bozeman, ATSDR, with Christine Williams, EnvironmentalManagement Office, Fort Devens, June 29, 1993.

  12. Contract for Asbestos Removal, Clean-up, and Disposal,Buildings T104 and T106. Sudbury Training Annex. October16, 1986.

  13. U.S. Army Natick Research and Development Command. Analysisof Existing Facilities/Environmental Assessment Report. November 1977.

  14. Sudbury Training Annex. Technical Review Committee MeetingNotes. February 2, 1993.

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