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  1. This site is a public health hazard because humans have probably been exposed to hazardous substances at concentrations that may result in adverse human health effects. As noted in the previous sections, human exposure occurred due to (1) ambient air emissions from the site via inhalation, (2) contaminated on-site media via dermal contact, and perhaps, incidental ingestion and inhalation, and (3) contaminated fish, surface water, and sediments. Possible current human exposures include (1) ingestion of contaminated fish, and (2) dermal contact, incidental ingestion, and inhalation of on-site contaminants most likely by remedial workers.
  2. Although environmental monitoring data for the site related aromatic amines are very limited or nonexistent, the types of cancer associated with the chemicals used during dye manufacture are consistent with the types which were originally thought to be elevated and/or clustered in Ashland. A follow-up case series investigation and subsequent review by the Expert Review Panel determined that the available evidence does not support a causal role by environmental exposures in the occurrence of bladder and kidney cancers in Ashland. The evaluation of more recent data (1982-1989) by the CAU did not reveal any significant elevations or geographic clustering.
  3. Fish from the Sudbury River and MDC Reservoirs #1 and #2 contain mercury contamination, mostly in the form of methylmercury. Methylmercury is a potent neurotoxin causing irreversible effects, especially to the developing fetus. Ingestion of fish from these water sources, especially by pregnant women, may result in adverse health effects. A health advisory was issued by the MDPH in coordination with other state agencies in the mid-1980's warning against the consumption of fish. This advisory holds for the stretch of the Sudbury River from Ashland to its confluence with the Assabet River in Concord.
  4. Currently, no known private water supply wells divert the groundwater contaminant plume originating at the site. Because a water moratorium existed in Ashland which limited hook-ups to the municipal water supply, a number of private water supply wells were installed. Most of these wells were installed in deep bedrock. Site related contamination of the deep bedrock aquifer exists. Because it is difficult to predict the direction of water migration in any given deep bedrock fissure and because groundwater contamination can travel a distance in the fissures without substantial dilution, a potential exists for capture of contaminated groundwater by a private water supply well in the future.
  5. Remediation of the on-site soils, wetlands, and sediments is nearing completion. Because soil was not tested in the developed areas of the lower industrial park, and groundwater contamination is both extensive and near the ground surface, the potential exists for future health impacts, especially if any soil removal activity occurred without the appropriate personal protection safeguards or if a water supply well was installed on-site.


  1. The case series investigation, the Expert Review Panel's findings, and this public health assessment address the community's concerns regarding the perceived increase in cancer incidence in Ashland in relation to exposure to contaminants from the Nyanza site. However, the community may still have concerns regarding the possible health impact to individuals exposed to site related contaminants in the past. If this concern still exists, local health officials should coordinate with the appropriate state health officials to address such concerns.
  2. The health advisory warning against the consumption of fish should continue to be updated as new environmental data become available.


The data and information developed in the public health assessment for the Nyanza Chemical Waste Dump site, Ashland, Massachusetts, have been evaluated by ATSDR's Health Activities Recommendation Panel for appropriate follow-up with respect to health activities. Because of probable past exposure and community health concerns regarding adverse health effects, the HARP determined that follow-up health actions are indicated. Specifically, the HARP determined that community health education and a retrospective epidemiological study to evaluate increased adverse health outcomes were indicated. The MDPH, however, has already performed community health education and has investigated the community health concerns related to increased adverse health effects. Furthermore, the MDPH investigation indicated that the increases in adverse health outcomes are probably not related to the site, and the community, working with an external advisory committee and the MDPH, determined that further health studies would not provide meaningful information. No additional public health actions are indicated at this time.


The Public Health Action Plan (PHAP) for the Nyanza site contains a description of actions to be taken by the ATSDR and/or the MDPH at and in the vicinity of the site subsequent to the completion of this health assessment. The purpose of the Public Health Action Plan is to ensure that this health assessment not only identifies public health hazards, but provides a plan of action designed to mitigate and prevent adverse human health effects resulting from exposure to hazardous substances in the environment. Included is a commitment on the part of the ATSDR/MDPH to follow up on this plan to ensure that it is implemented. The public health actions to be implemented by the ATSDR/MDPH are as follows:

  1. Cancer incidence in Ashland will continue to be monitored by the Community Assessment Unit of the MDPH, Bureau of Environmental Health Assessment (BEHA) through the Massachusetts Cancer Registry.
  2. As new data become available, the Toxicology Unit of the MDPH, BEHA will update the health advisory warning against the consumption of fish in the Sudbury River and will work with the EPA and affected communities to increase public awareness regarding contamination in the river.
  3. The ATSDR will provide an annual follow-up to this PHAP, outlining the actions completed and those in progress. This report will be placed in repositories that contain copies of this health assessment and will be provided to persons who request it.

The ATSDR will reevaluate and expand the Public Health Action Plan when needed. New environmental, toxicological, or health outcome data, or the results of implementing the above proposed actions may determine the need for additional actions at this site.


Gail Garron Whyte
Environmental Analyst
Bureau of Environmental Health Assessment
Massachusetts Department of Public Health

Anne Fox
Environmental Analyst
Bureau of Environmental Health Assessment
Massachusetts Department of Public Health

Elizabeth Case
Research Analyst
Bureau of Environmental Health Assessment
Massachusetts Department of Public Health

Jeffrey Purvis
Chief of Community Assessment
Bureau of Environmental Health Assessment
Massachusetts Department of Public Health

Suzanne K. Condon
Bureau Director
Bureau of Environmental Health Assessment
Massachusetts Department of Public Health


Louise House
Regional Operations
Office of the Assistant Administrator, ATSDR


The public health assessment for the Nyanza Chemical Dump was prepared by the Massachusetts Department of Public Health under a cooperative agreement with the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). It is in accordance with approved methodology and procedures existing at the time the public health assessment was begun.

Gregory V. Ulirsch
Technical Project Officer, SPS, RPB, DHAC

The Division of Health Assessment and Consultation, ATSDR, has reviewed this public health assessment, and concurs with its findings.

Robert C. Williams
Director, DHAC, ATSDR


  1. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). (May 30,1989) Memorandum (from Marilyn R. DiSirio, ATSDR-Region I Regional Representative to Tom Condon, EPA-Region I, On-Scene Coordinator, ESD). Health Consultation: Buried Drums, Nyanza NPL Site; Ashland, MA.

  2. ATSDR. Toxicological Profiles for: benzidine (1989), mercury (1989), trichloroethylene (1989), 1,4-dichlorobenzene (1989), antimony (1990), chromium (1989), and lead (1990).

  3. Ebasco, Inc. (1988, November). Final Draft Preliminary Summary of Site Characterization: Nyanza II-Groundwater study. Ashland, MA (EPA Contract No. 68-01-7250).

  4. Hazardous Substance Data Bank (HSDB). (1991). from the National Library of Medicine.

    Chemical HSDB no. last review date


    43 12/1/88


    55 12/9/87


    104 12/9/87


    508 6/2/89


    521 8/26/88


    522 8/26/88


    1080 not done


    1105 6/2/89


    1131 not done


    1603 not done


    1627 2/19/88


    1640 2/19/88


    2042 2/19/88


    2073 not done


    4107 not done

  5. Camp, Dresser, and McKee Inc. (1989, Sept. 19) Memorandum from Raymond Porter to Arthur Quaglieri. Subject: Review of air emissions and impacts from the Nyanza data.

  6. Moore, J.W. and Ramamoanthy, S. (1984) Heavy Metals in Natural Waters: Applied Monitoring and Impact Assessment. Springer Series on Environmental Management, Robert S. DeSanto, Series Editor. Springer-Verlag, New York, 268 pp.

  7. Massachusetts Department of Environmental Quality Engineering (DEQE). (1985, May 28) Memorandum for the Record. From J. Fitzgerald, Principal Sanitary Engineer to P. Donahue, Environmental Analyst. Subject: Ashland - Nyanza site - "Chemical" Brook site visit.

  8. Howard, P.H., ed. (1990) Handbook of Environmental Fate and Exposure Data for Organic Chemicals. Volumes I and II. Lewis Publishers, Inc. Chelsea, MI.

  9. DEQE, Drinking Water Supply. (1988) Water supply statistics and volatile organic compound monitoring results.

  10. DEQE. (1988, May) Memorandum for the Record: Ashland-Nyanza Chemical Drinking water sampling. (DEQE Case No. 03-216, file: NYDWS.txt).

  11. DEQE. (1988, July) Memorandum for the Record (from Pat Donahue). Ashland Nyanza Chemical Site. Soil sampling results. (DEQE Case No. 03-0216).

  12. DEQE, Office of Drinking Water Supply. (1988, December 19) Memorandum (from Kellie O'Keefe, DWS, to Edward P. Kunce, Regional Director, DWS). Ashland - Water Quality for Public Water Supply. (PWS I.D. No.3014000).

  13. DEQE. (1980, October 23) Nyanza Chemical Waste Dump Preliminary Site Assessment Report. Prepared by Brian Kelleher, Hazardous Waste Coordinator.

  14. USEPA. (1990) David Lederer, Remedial Project Manager, personal communication.

  15. MDPH. (March 28, 1986) Health Advisory: Mercury Contamination in the Sudbury River.

  16. Screpetis, A.J. (1977, November) Memorandum for the Record:Mercury Analysis of Fish from Sudbury Reservoir. Massachusetts Department of Water Pollution Control, & Massachusetts Department of Fish and Wildlife.

  17. a. Massachusetts Department of Water Pollution Control (DWPC). Sediment sampling of the Sudbury River, 1971, 1976.
    b. DEQE, Division of Water Pollution Control (DWPC). Sediment sampling of the Sudbury River, 1980, 1985.

  18. Ebasco, Inc. (1991, April) Draft Final Remedial Investigation Report - Nyanza II - Groundwater Study.

  19. NUS Corporation. (1985, March) Draft Phase I Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report: Nyanza Chemical Site, Middlesex County, MA. Vol I & IA. (EPA Contract No 68-01-6699).

  20. NUS Corporation. (1987, January 26) Technical Assistance:Residential Sampling. Nyanza Chemical. (Report No. TDD F1-8611-40). Ashland, Massachusetts.

  21. Massachusetts Department of Labor and Industries, Division of Occupational Hygiene. (1974, June 18) Nyanza Site Visit in June 12, 1974 by Dr. R.S. Ratney (Report No. 74-555).

  22. Town of Ashland. Annual Report, 1988.

  23. USEPA, Environmental Response Team. (1987, November) The Nyanza Site, Ashland, MA report. Prepared by David W. Charters.

  24. USEPA. (1971, February) Field report. Wastewater and Sewage Sampling of Nyanza,Inc. (As cited in reference 13).

  25. Klaassen, C.D., Amdur, M.O., and Doull, J. (1986). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons. Third Edition. Macmillan Publishing Co., New York, 974 pp.

  26. USEPA, Office of Drinking Water. (1987) Health Advisory fortrans-1,2-dichloroethylene.

  27. USEPA. (1987) Record of Decision: Remedial Alternative Selection; Nyanza Chemical Waste Dump Site. Boston, MA.

  28. USEPA. (1987, April 27) Residential Air Screening Survey: Nyanza Chemical Site. Prepared by Peter R. Khan.

  29. Weston-SPER. (1988, July) After Action Report for Nyanza vault hazardous waste site. (EPA contract No. 68-017367). Toxikon. (1987, November 2 and 16). Two analytical reports for ash monitoring results. Clean Harbors Analytical Services. (1987, November and December).Two analytical reports for ash and soil monitoring. O.H. Materials Corp. (1987, December 1). Project 4865E: Summary Report of Analytical Services. (Vault sludge monitoring results).

  30. USEPA, Water Supply Branch. (1986, December) Letter from J. Kevin Reilly, Operations Specialist and Microbiologist, & David Chin, Environmental Engineering, to Chester Mysel, DEQE Division of Water Supply.

  31. Wehran Engineering, Inc. (1987, October) Nyanza Wetlands Sampling Program in Ashland, MA. Massachusetts FIT Contract, Final Phase II Report, Project No. 50050.29.

  32. Wehran Engineering, Inc., Massachusetts Field Investigation Team (FIT). (1987, November) Draft Phase II Report, Nyanza Vault Site in Ashland, MA.

  33. DEQE. Private Water Supply Wells Monitoring, 1989.

  34. DEQE. (1984, January) Letter from Richard J. Chalpin, Regional Environmental Engineering, to Timex Clock Co. plant in Ashland. Ashland-Contaminated Groundwater at Timex Company.

  35. USEPA. (1989, February) Indoor Air Toxics Results: Federated Church of Ashland. Nyanza Chemical Site, Ashland, MA. Prepared by Peter Kahn.

  36. Town of Ashland. (1989, July 17) Letter from Mark D. Semenuk, Acting Superintendent, Ashland Water and Sewer Department to Richard Chalpin, Regional Director, Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection (DEP).

  37. Massachusetts Department of Public Works (MDPH). (1989, April 26) Press Release: "MDPH Lifts Private Well Water Advisory for Most Ashland Homes." Boston, MA.

  38. Ebasco, Inc. (1989, May) Draft Final Work Plan. Nyanza III -Sudbury River Study, Middlesex County, MA. (EPA Contract No. 68-01-7250).

  39. Carr Research Laboratory, Inc. & Connorstone, Inc. (1981, August 14) On-site hydrogeology and initial pollutant studies on the Nyanza Chemical Waste Dump. Ashland, Mass. Prepared for MCL Development Corporation.

  40. Powell, J.D. (1988) A Hazardous Waste Site: The Case of Nyanza. In Sheldon Krimsky & Alonzo Plough (Eds.), Environmental Hazards: Communicating Risks as a Social Process. (pp. 239-297). Dover, MA: Auburn House Publishing Company.

  41. Wyngaarden, J.B. and Smith, L.H. (1985) Cecil Textbook of Medicine. 17th Edition. W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia.

  42. DEQE, Division of Hazardous Waste & MDFW. (1981, November) Results of Fish Sampling Program.

  43. DEQE, DWPC. (1985) Metals in Sudbury River Fish. Prepared by John J. Jonash, Associate Environmentalist, Technical Services Branch. Westborough, MA.

  44. DEQE, DWPC. (1989, March 15) Memorandum (from Robert Maietta, Aquatic Biologist II, and Gregory DeCesere, Aquatic Biologist I, to Arthur S. Johnson, Biomonitoring Project Manager). 1987 Sudbury River Fish Monitoring Survey. (BIO 87-10).

  45. DEQE, DWPC. (1988, December 6) Memorandum (from Robert J. Maietta, Aquatic Biologist II, to Arthur S. Johnson, Biomonitoring Project Manager). 1987 Heard Pond Fish Toxics Monitoring Program.

  46. Camp Dresser & McKee Inc. (1987, March 23) Report of field work completed July 16 through August 22, 1986. Remedial design for Nyanza Chemical Site, Ashland, Massachusetts. Final Draft.

  47. MDPH, Division of Environmental Health Assessment. (1990, December 5) Follow-up report on the occurrence of bladder and kidney cancer in Ashland, Massachusetts.

  48. DEQE. (1985, October 11) Letter from William A. Knoll, P.E., Deputy Regional Environmental Engineering to Ashland Board of Water Commissioners. Ashland: Public Water Supply-Cross Connection. (PWS I.D. No. 3014000).

  49. Ashland Citizens Advisory Committee. (1989/1990) Summaries of documents reviewed from archived material obtained from the Ashland Boards of Health and Selectmen, Water Department, Fire Department logs, and annual town reports. Volunteers from the CAC reviewed and summarized this material with guidance from MDPH as to what information was desired.

  50. The Colour Index. Volume 4. The Society of Dyers and Colourists.

  51. MDPH. (1989, March 10) Memorandum from E. Furlong, ETU, and C. Barbosa, ETU, to Suzanne Condon, Unit Chief, ETU and CAU. Subject: EPA memorandum dated February 7, 1989 and titled "Indoor Air Sampling Results, Nyanza Chemical Site/Federated Church of Ashland, Ashland, MA."

  52. USEPA. (May 18, 1989) Environmental News: EPA discovers drums at Nyanza Superfund site.

  53. NUS Corporation. (1986, April 23) Correspondence from Martha Meyers Lee to Don Smith (EPA) regarding "Nyanza Chemical site trip report." (TDD No. F1-8603-22).

  54. NUS Corporation. (1986, May 20) Correspondence from Martha Meyers Lee to Tom Spittler regarding "Nyanza Chemical data validation case 5799; California Analytical Laboratory." (TDD No. F1-8603-22).

  55. NUS Corporation. (1986, June 12) Correspondence from Martha Meyers Lee to Tom Spittler (EPA) regarding "Nyanza Chemical site organic data validation case 5799; NUS Corporation." (TDD No. F1-8603-22).

  56. DEQE. (1986, June 26) Memorandum for the Record. Subject: Ashland - Nyanza Chemical Site, wet basement sampling. From Patricia Donahue, Environmental Analyst to John Fitzgerald, Principal Sanitary Engineer.

  57. NUS Corporation. (1986, July) Correspondence from Martha Meyers Lee to Don Smith (EPA) regarding Nyanza Chemical Site trip report. (TDD No. F1-8603-22).

  58. MDPH. (1988, December 23) Press Release: Ashland water testing to begin.

  59. U.S. Army Corp of Engineers (USACE), Omaha District, Environmental Branch. (1990, March 20) Letter from S.L. Carlock, Chief, Environmental Branch, to Eileen Furlong, Division of Environmental Health Assessment, MDPH.

  60. USEPA, Environmental Response Branch, Edison, NJ. (1989, July 30) Memorandum from Thomas H. Pritchett, Chemist to David Lederer, RPM, EPA Region I. Subject: analytical results from dimethylmercury analyses to date with appropriate recommendations.

  61. USACE. (1989) Various data packages.
    * Meteorologic conditions for sample collection period (November 13-15 and October 30, 1989) and weather conditions (October 16, 20, and 25, 1989) and figure 2, perimeter air monitoring stations.
    * Meteorologic conditions for 10/23/89-11/12/89.
    * Dimethylmercury daily background monitoring locations (10/31/89, 11/1,6-10/89.
    * Cashins and Associates Inc. - Air monitoring data sheet. For Tricil Environmental Response, Inc. (10/16-20, 23-27,30,31/89 and 11/1/89).
    * New England Division Laboratory, Superfund-Nyanza, Dimethyl Mercury (analytical results). Report dates: 10/26,30,31/89 and 11/9,13,17,20,22/89 and 12/7,8,15/89.

  62. ATSDR. (1989, September 22) Memorandum from Mark A. McClanahan and David Mellard, Toxicologists, Emergency Response Branch, Office of Health Assessment to Marilyn DiSirio, Public Health Advisor. Subject: Health consultation: Nyanza Chemical Site, Ashland, Massachusetts.

  63. ATSDR. (1989, July 17) Interagency memorandum from Louise House, Regional Representative, ATSDR Region I, to David Lederer, USEPA, Region I. Subject: Clarification of memo dated 8/9/83, Nyanza Chemical Dump, Ashland, Massachusetts.

  64. ATSDR. (1983, August 9) Memorandum from Georgi A. Jones, Superfund Implementation Group, Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control, to John Figler, Public Health Advisor, EPA Region I. Regarding: Nyanza Chemical Dump, Ashland, Massachusetts.

  65. ATSDR. (1983, May 12) Memorandum from Georgi A. Jones, Superfund Implementation Group, Center for Environmental Health, Centers of Disease Control, to John Figler, Public Health Advisor, EPA Region I. Regarding: Nyanza Chemical Dump, Ashland, Massachusetts.

  66. Middlesex News. (1989, November 2) "Nyanza work halted: U.S. closes site after high vapor levels found" and related news articles.

  67. NUS Corporation. (1990, July) Final Technical Directive Memorandum for Phase I Activities of the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study, Nyanza Operable Unit III - Sudbury River Study, Middlesex County, Massachusetts.

  68. International Agency for Research on Cancer, World Health Organization. (1982, May) IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans. Volume 29: Some Industrial Chemicals and Dyestuffs. Supplement 7: Overall Evaluation of Carcinogenicity: An Updating of IARC Monographs Volume 1 to 42. Lyon, France.

  69. MDPH. (1990, May 2) Memorandum from S. Condon, Director DEHA, and E. Furlong, Senior Environmental Analyst, through Louise House, ATSDR Regional Representative, to David Lederer, EPA RPM, and Mark Fisher, USACE, Omaha District. Subject: Dimethylmercury at the Nyanza Chemical site, Ashland, MA.

  70. U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. (1982) 1980 Census of Population. Vol.: Characteristics of the Population. Chapter B. General Population Characteristics. Part 23. Massachusetts PC80-1-B23.

  71. USEPA. (1982, November) Nyanza Hazardous Waste Site, Ashland, Massachusetts. Environmental Photographic Interpretation Center, Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. TS-PIC-82063.

  72. DEP, Bureau of Waste Site Cleanup. (1990, March 8) List of Confirmed Disposal Sites and Locations to be Investigated.

  73. Ashland Historical Society. (1942) History of the Town of Ashland.

  74. DEQE. (1982, June 28) Letter from Edw. H. MacDonald, Deputy Regional Environmental Engineer, to Ashland Board of Selectmen.

  75. Rizzo Associates. (1988, June 20) Letter from A.F. Andronico and R.J. Hugh to Ms. Donahue, DEQE. Re: 60 Pleasant Street, Ashland, Massachusetts, DEQE Case No. 03-218.

  76. DEQE. (1985, March 4) Memorandum to J. Fitzgerald, Principal Sanitary Engineer from Stephen Johnson. Subject: Ashland: Site inspection report on Three-C Electrical Testing Co., Inc.

  77. DEQE. (1985, February 21) Letter from R.J. Chalpin, Acting Regional Environmental Engineer, to A. Piccioli, Three-C Electrical Testing Co. Re: Ashland - soil removal and sampling at 280 Pleasant St.

  78. Syracuse Research Corp. (1976, March) Chemical Market Input/Output Analysis of Selected Chemical Substances to Assess Sources of Environmental Contamination. Task I. Naphthylamines. Prepared for USEPA, Office of Toxic Substances. (NTIS document no. PB-271 018).

  79. Weyerhaueser Analytical and Testing Services. (1987, March 18) Great Meadows National Wildlife Refuge.

  80. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. (1984, November) A survey of selected contaminants in Sudbury/Concord River fish.

  81. ETC-Findlay Laboratory. (1989, June) Compatability testing of drum contents. For, Environmental Technology, Inc., Richmond, VA. Project Number 300349.

  82. USEPA. (1989, November 21) Memorandum from R. Siscanaw, Chemist, EPA Region I, Lexington, MA, to D. Lederer, EPA RPM, Boston, MA. RE: Evaluation of the Nyanza data.

  83. USACE, New England Division Environmental Laboratory, Barre Falls Dam, Hubbardston, MA. (1989, December) Analysis of dimethylmercury in air.

  84. Mitra, S. (1986) Mercury in the Ecosystem: Its Dispersion and Pollution Today. Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland, 327 pp.

  85. MDPH, Division of Environmental Epidemiology and Toxicology, Community Assessment Unit. (1988, December 16) Bladder and kidney cancer incidence and mortality, infant and neonate mortality in the Town of Ashland, Massachusetts.

  86. MDPH. (1987) The 1982-1985 Report of Cancer Incidence in Massachusetts.

  87. Petersdorf, R.G. et al. (1983) Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 10th edition. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York.

  88. Carson, B.L., Ellis, H.V., and McCann, J.L. (1986) Toxicology and Biological Monitoring of Metals in Humans: Including Feasibility and Need. Lewis Publishers, Inc., Chelsea, MI. 328 pp.

  89. American Cancer Society, Massachusetts Division. (1986) Cancer Manual. Boston, MA.

  90. Record of Decision. Nyanza Chemical Waste Dump Site. Groundwater Study - Operable Unit II. EPA Region I. September 1991.

  91. NUS. Final Remedial Investigation Report. (May 1992) Nyanza Operable Unit III - Sudbury River Study.

  92. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Nyanza Chemical Waste Dump Superfund Site. Remedial Action Report. September 1992.

  93. U.S. EPA. Indoor Air Screening Survey Results. Nyanza Chemical Superfund Site. December 1990.

  94. U.S. EPA. EPA Environmental News. EPA Selects Cleanup Plan for Nyanza Chemical Waste Dump Superfund Site. April 1, 1993.

  95. Comments made by the Ashland Board of Health on the pre-Public Comment Release Health Assessment for the Nyanza site during the July 1993 meeting of the Ashland Board of Health and the MDPH.

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