Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to site content




  1. Recent sampling information has been incorporated into this document and has resulted in subsequent changes in the conclusions and resulting recommendations.
  2. There are no known current exposure pathways at DGSC. DGSC is classified in the category of no apparent public health hazard. Although DGSC was determined to be an indeterminate public health hazard in the initial release and public comment release, additional environmental data have become available. That data currently indicate that private wells are free of contamination.
  3. No additional community health concerns were identified during the public comment period for this public health assessment.
  4. Rayon Park residents were exposed to VOC-contaminated water via ingestion and inhalation of and dermal contact with water from their private wells. The duration of exposure is unknown, and the exposures stopped when wells were replaced with municipal water in 1987. Because of the infrequent exposure to the low concentrations of the VOCs, adverse health effects are not expected. This evaluation is based on exposure to individual contaminants. More information is needed on adverse health effects that might be associated with exposure to multiple contaminants.
  5. Available health outcome data indicate cancer mortality rates were elevated during the years from 1950 through 1979 for white and nonwhite men in Chesterfield County compared with state rates. The elevated cancers are associated with the oral cavity and respiratory tract. No elevated rates were found in women in Chesterfield County. ATSDR cannot determine if the elevated cancer mortality rates in men are related to exposure to DGSC contaminants because site-specific health outcome data are not available for communities near DGSC and because data are not available on smoking and occupational status for exposed individuals. The medical and scientific literature have not linked exposure to VOCs with development of cancers associated with the oral cavity and respiratory tract.
  6. Additional exposures could occur if contaminant plumes migrate to private wells being used for potable purposes at residences in the Rayon Park and Kingsland Creek areas or other nearby wells. Sampling data have recently been collected and analyzed for those areas. Currently, those data indicate those wells appear to be free of contamination. However, periodic identification and monitoring of private wells in those areas are not routinely performed.
  7. Remedial workers and other personnel may be exposed to metals and VOCs in soils while working at the Fire Training Area. Remedial workers and other personnel may be exposed to contaminants in soils while working at the Fuel Oil Storage Area and Buildings 202, 112, and 68. As long as appropriate procedures and personal protective equipment are used, minimal exposures are expected.
  8. Workers may be exposed to airborne contaminants from the National Guard Area and Fire Training Area. As long as appropriate procedures and personal protective equipment are used, minimal exposures are expected.
  9. Recent surface water and sediment sampling were conducted in Kingsland Creek and No-Name Creek in October of 1992 (Law Environmental, Inc. 1992b and Law Environmental, Inc. 1993). Although some chemicals were detected in those surface waters and sediment, the concentrations detected are not likely to cause adverse health effects.
  10. Some drums and containers in the Open Storage Area, which contain products that may have low flash points, are improperly stored. Workers and visitors in the Open Storage Area could be exposed to contaminants or be injured if weather-exposed drums were to explode or spills resulted in fires. Proper storage of these drums and containers is needed.
  11. Findings from the surface water and sediment sampling suggest that DDT was not introduced into the fish from Parker Pond (DGSC 1991b). Because the fish used to stock the pond are brought from an off-post facility (DGSC 1992b), the fish may have been contaminated before they were put into the pond.
  12. Although some studies have suggested that chronic exposure to multiple contaminants via ingestion and inhalation may be associated with an increased risk of developing cancer (Byers et al 1988; Lagakos et al 1986; Mallin 1990; Vinels 1990; Hong et al 1991; Hernberg et al 1988), the levels at which this may occur is unknown. Possible health effects associated with past use of contaminated water with multiple VOCs are unknown, largely because of the lack of published data on health effects stemming from chronic exposure to multiple contaminants.
  13. Health guidelines needed to address all exposure routes (ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact) are not available for all contaminants that people were exposed to via contaminated private well water use.


  1. Identify and periodically monitor the wells of residences in the Rayon Park, Kingsland Creek, and other areas that are not connected to a public water supply if contaminant plumes are determined to migrate in those directions. Use appropriate quality assurance and quality control procedures to validate sampling data, and set detection limits below MCLs.
  2. Restrict site access to non-essential personnel at the National Guard Area and Fire Training Area, as well as the Fuel Oil Storage Area and Buildings 202, 112, and 68. For personnel who must be at those areas, provide personal protective equipment in accordance with OSHA and NIOSH standards.
  3. Periodically monitor Kingsland Creek and the No-Name Creek adjoining the installation if future groundwater monitoring results indicate that concentrations could be higher than previously detected. Use appropriate quality assurance and quality control procedures to validate the sampling data.
  4. Appropriately store and shelter drums and containers of chemicals in the Open Storage Area.
  5. Stock Parker Pond with fish from non-contaminated supplies.
  6. If a multiple-contaminant exposure registry is initiated, DGSC, because of past exposure, should be re-evaluated to determine if persons who were exposed to VOCs in their private drinking water wells should be included in that registry.
  7. Health Guidelines, such as Minimal Risk Levels, should be developed for contaminants for all exposure routes (ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact). Guidelines lacking for specific contaminants in this public health assessment are discussed in the Toxicologic Evaluation section. Validated studies should also be either conducted or funded by EPA, ATSDR, or other appropriate agencies and organizations to determine possible health effects that may be associated with simultaneous exposure to multiple VOCs.
  8. The data and information in the Public Health Assessment for the Defense General Supply Center have been evaluated for follow-up health activities by the ATSDR Health Activities Recommendation Panel (HARP). The citizens living in communities near DGSC need information about their potential for exposure, the extent of contamination at DGSC, and additional environmental sampling and remediation that is planned at DGSC. DGSC has held public meetings with the communities and disseminated environmental fact sheets to discuss those issues. DGSC has communicated sampling results to private well owners. Currently, there are no indications that adverse health conditions are occurring or have occurred from past exposures to DGSC contaminants. However, if contaminants are measured in groundwater from off-site private wells, community health education concerning exposure is indicated. Moreover, if other environmental or health outcome data become available that indicate human exposure to hazardous substances is occurring at levels that may cause illness or injury, ATSDR will re-evaluate the need for additional follow-up health actions.


The public health action plan for the Defense General Supply Center NPL site contains a description of actions to be taken by ATSDR and/or other governmental agencies at and in the vicinity of the sites subsequent to the completion of this public health assessment. The purpose of the public health action plan is to ensure that this public health assessment not only identifies public health hazards, but provides a plan of action designed to mitigate and prevent adverse human health effects resulting from exposure to hazardous substances in the environment. ATSDR is committed to follow up on this plan to ensure that it is implemented. The public health actions to be implemented are as follows:

A. Actions Undertaken

  1. A public water supply is available in the Rayon Park area for any citizen who wishes to connect to the public supply.
  2. Defense General Supply Center, as part of the Defense Logistics Agency, has sampled seven private wells in the Kingsland Creek area. The residents were notified of the results, and one resident was referred to a health professional at the Virginia Department of Health (DGSC 1993a, DGSC 1993b, DGSC 1992c). A well survey was conducted to identify and locate potable private wells within a quarter mile of DGSC boundaries. Out of 108 survey responses, 16 residences use groundwater for drinking water and other purposes.
  3. Newsletters have been distributed to citizens as well as others interested in the environmental remediation and sampling ongoing at Defense General Supply Center. Distribution of those environmental fact sheets began in April 1992 (DGSC 1993a, DGSC 1993b).

B. Actions Planned

  1. Defense General Supply Center, EPA, Virginia Department of Health (including Chesterfield District Health Department), and ATSDR will continue to provide current health information to the community to assess any possible adverse health outcomes associated with exposure to hazardous substances.
  2. If contaminants are detected at concentrations of public health concern in groundwater from off-base private wells, community health education concerning exposure is indicated and will be performed by either DGSC or ATSDR staff.
  3. DGSC will continue to provide information to the communities, adjacent to the installation, about the extent of contamination and remediation and environmental sampling being planned for DGSC.
  4. ATSDR will re-evaluate and expand this plan when needed. New environmental, toxicologic, or health outcome data, or the results of implementing the above proposed actions may determine the need for additional actions at the Defense General Supply Center NPL site.


Linda K. West, M.S.P.H.
Environmental Health Scientist
Federal Programs Branch
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation

Gail D. Godfrey
Environmental Health Scientist
Federal Programs Branch
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation

ATSDR Regional Representative:
Charles J. Walters
Public Health Advisor
EPA Region III


C. Virginia Lee, M.D., M.P.H.
Medical Officer
Federal Programs Branch
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation

Gary H. Campbell, Ph.D.
Chief, Army Unit, Defense Facilities Assessment Section
Federal Programs Branch
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation

John E. Abraham, Ph.D., M.P.H.
Chief, Defense Facilities Assessment Section
Federal Programs Branch
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation


ATSDR. 1989a. Toxicological Profile for 1,2-Dichloroethane. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Atlanta.

ATSDR. 1989b. Toxicological Profile for 1,1-Dichloroethylene. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Atlanta.

ATSDR. 1990. Toxicological Profile for 1,1,1-Trichloroethane. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Atlanta.

ATSDR. 1992a. Toxicological Profile for Benzene. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Atlanta.

ATSDR. 1992b. Toxicological Profile for Tetrachloroethylene. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Atlanta.

ATSDR. 1992c. Toxicological Profile for Trichloroethylene. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Atlanta.

Amdur MO, Doull J, and Klaassen CD, eds. Casarett and Doull's Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons. New York: Pergamon Press, 1991.

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. 1986. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 5th ed. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. Cincinnati, OH.

Bauer M, Rabens SF. 1974. Cutaneous manifestations of trichloroethylene toxicity. Arch Dermatol 110:886-890.

Byers, VS, Levin, AS, Ozonoff, DM, and Baldwin, RW. 1988. Association between clinical symptoms and lymphocyte abnormalities in a population with chronic domestic exposure to industrial solvent-contaminated domestic water supply and a high incidence of leukaemia. 1988. Cancer Immunol Immunother 27:77-81.

Carlson GP. 1973. Effect of phenobarbital and 3-methylchoanthrene pretreatment on the hepatotoxicity of 1,1,1-trichloroethane and 1,1,2-trichloroethane. Life Sci (United States) 13:67-73.

Carpenter CP. 1937. The chronic toxicity of tetrachloroethylene. J Ind Hyg Toxicol 19:323-336.

Chemical Products Synopsis. 1985. Perchloroethylene. Mannsville Chemical Products Corp., Cortland, N.Y.

Chemical Systems Laboratory. 1981. Installation Assessment of Defense General Supply Center, Virginia.

Chesterfield Health District. 1987. Rayon Park Well Monitoring Test Results.

CH2M Hill. July 2, 1991. Memorandum from DGSC to the EPA RPM--USGS Wells Near the National Guard Area.

Dames and Moore. 1989a. Remedial Investigation, Acid Neutralization Pit Area, Defense General Supply Center.

Dames and Moore. 1989b. Remedial Investigation, Area 50, Open Storage Area, and National Guard Area, Text and Appendices, Defense General Supply Center.

Dames and Moore. 1989c. Remedial Investigation, Fire Training Area, Defense General Supply Center.

DGSC. 1991a. Site Observations and Discussions with Virginia Department of Health, Chesterfield Health District, and Defense General Supply Center Personnel. March 1991.

DGSC. 1991b. Memorandum from DGSC to the EPA RPM--Expanded Site Investigation for Parker Pond. July 25, 1991.

DGSC. 1992a. Minutes of Status of Installation Restoration Program.

DGSC. 1992b. Comments given in response to the Data Validation Review of Draft Public Health Assessment: April 1992.

DGSC. 1992c. Personal Communication with DGSC Environmental Engineer, Bill Saddington. December 11, 1992.

DGSC. 1993a. Comments given in Review of the Initial Release Draft Public Health Assessment.

DGSC. 1993b. Personal phone conversation with Bill Saddington, DGSC Environmental Engineer. April 6, 1993.

EPA. 1985. Health assessment document for 1,2-dichloroethane. Final Report. Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Washington, DC. EPA 600/8-84-006F.

EPA. 1980. Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Benzene. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Washington, D.C. EPA 440/5-80-018.

Environmental Restoration Company. 1991. Site Assessment and Remedial Action--Extended Site Investigation of the Aluminum Phosphide Area.

Franz TJ. 1984. Percutaneous absorption of benzene. In: MacFarland HN, Holdsworth CE, MacGregor JA, et al. eds. Advances in modern environmental toxicology. Vol. VI. Applied toxicology of petroleum hydrocarbons. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Scientific Publishers, Inc., 61-70.

Goh CL, Ng SK. 1988. A cutaneous manifestation of trichloroethylene toxicity. Contact Dermatitis 18:59-61.

Hake CL, Stewart RD. 1977. Human exposure to tetrachloroethylene: Inhalation and skin contact. Environ Health Perspect 21:231-238.

Hernberg, S, Kauppinen, T, Riala, R, Korkala, ML, and Asikainen, U. 1988. Increased risk for primary liver cancer among women exposed to solvents. Scand J Work Environ Health 14:356-365.

Hoffmann D, Hecht SS, and Wynder EL. 1983. Tumor promoters and cocarcinogens in tobacco carcinogenesis. Environ Health Perspect 50:247-57

Hong, HL, Yang, RSH, and Boorman, GA. 1991. Residual damage to hematopoietic system in mice exposed to a mixture of groundwater contaminants. Toxicology Letters 57:101-111.

Koppel C, Arndt I, Arendt U, et al. 1985. Acute tetrachloroethylene poisoning: Blood elimination kinetics during hyperventilation therapy. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 23:103-115.

Lagakos, SW, Wessen, BJ, and Zelen, M. 1986. An analysis of contaminated well water and health effects in Woburn, Massachusetts. Journal of the American Statistical Association, Vol. 81, No. 395:583-614.

Law Environmental, Inc. 1992a. Record of Decision for OU 5--Acid Neutralization Pits Source Area. March 1992.

Law Environmental, Inc. 1992b. Sampling and Analysis Plan for Remedial Investigation and Expanded Site Investigation; Draft-Final. March 1992.

Law Environmental, Inc., 1993. Internal-Draft--Quality Control Summary Report for Remedial Investigation Addendums and Expanded Site Inspection Reports. February 1993.

Maibach HI, Anjo DM. 1981. Percutaneous penetration of benzene and benzene contained in solvents in the rubber industry. Arch Environ Health 36:256-260.

Mallin, K. 1990. Investigation of a bladder cancer cluster in northwestern Illinois. American Journal of Epidemiology Vol. 132, Suppl., No. 1: S96-S106.

Maltoni C, Cotti G, Patella V. 1986. Results of long-term carcinogenicity bioassays on Sprague-Dawley rats of methyl chloroform, administered by ingestion. ACTA Oncol 7:101-117.

Maroni M, Bulgheroni C, Grazia CM, et al. 1977. A clinical, neurophysiological and behavioral study of female workers exposed to 1,1,1-trichloroethane. Scand J Work Environ Health 3:16-22.

McKone TE. 1987. Human exposure to volatile organic compounds in household tap water: The inhalation pathway. Environ Sci Technol 21:1194-1201.

Mitchell TF. 1980. Glue. In: Kirk-Othmer Concise Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, 11:916.

Munson AE, Sanders VM, Douglas KA, et al. 1982. In vivo assessment of immunotoxicity. Environ Health Perspect 43:41-52.

NCI. 1978. Bioassay of technical grade 1,2-dichloroethane for possible carcinogenicity. Bethesda, MD: Division of Cancer Cause and Prevention, Carcinogenesis Testing Program, National Cancer Institute. NCI-CG-TR 55.

NIOSH. 1976. National Occupational Hazard Survey. Cincinnati, Ohio: National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Otto WH. 1990. Inhalation exposure from volatile organic compounds found in drinking water. In: Proceedings of the Fourth National Environmental Health Conference. Environmental Issues: Today's Challenge for the Future, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 69-78.

Priestly BG, Plaa GL. 1976. Hepatic function after acute or subchronic nicotine administration in untreated mice and mice treated with hepatotoxic chemicals. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther 223:132-141.

Rowe VK, McCollister DD, Spencer HC, et al. 1952. Vapor toxicity of tetrachloroethylene for laboratory animals and human subjects. AMA Arch Ind Hyg Occup Med 5:566-579.

Quast JF, Calhoun LL, Frauson LE. 1988. 1,1,1-Trichloroethane formulation: A chronic inhalation toxicity and oncogenicity study in Fischer 344 rats and B6C3F1 mice. Fund Appl Toxicol 11:611-625.

Surgeon General Report, 1982. The Health Consequences of Smoking. Cancer. U.S. Government Publication No. DHHS (PHS) 82-50179, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1982.

Susten A, Dames B, Burg J, et al. 1985. Percutaneous penetration of benzene in hairless mice: An estimate of dermal absorption during tire-building operations. Am J Ind Med 7:323-335.

Tsai SP, Wen CP, Weiss NS, et al. 1983. Retrospective mortality and medical surveillance studies of workers in benzene areas of refineries. J Occup Med 25:685-692.

Tsurata H. 1975. Percutaneous absorption of organic solvents: Comparative study of the in vivo percutaneous absorption of chlorinated solvents in mice. Ind Health 13:227-236.3

U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1991. Census of Population and Housing, 1990: Summary Tape File 1 (Virginia). Washington, D.C.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 1990. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. Publication Number 90-117.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. September 1987. U.S. Cancer Mortality Rates and Trends, 1950-1979; Volume IV: Maps. EPA/600/1-83/015e. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington.

Van Duuren BL, Goldschmidt BM, Loewengart G, et al. 1979. Carcinogenicity of halogenated olefinic and aliphatic hydrocarbons in mice. JNCI 63:1433-1439.

Vinels, P, Avanzi, GC, Glovinazzo, B, Ponzlo, G, Cambrin, GR, and Ciccone, G. 1990. Cytogenetics and occupational exposure to solvents: A pilot study on leukemias and myelodysplastic disorders. Tumori 76:350-352.

Virginia Department of Health, Division of Maternal and Child Health. 1991. Preliminary Report of Children Born During Calendar Year 1987 With Congenital Anomalies: Virginia Congenital Anomalies Reporting and Education System.

Virginia Department of Waste Management. October 1991. DGSC Superfund Community Relations Plan.

Woolverton WL, Balster RL. 1981. Behavioral and lethal effects of combinations of oral ethanol and inhaled 1,1,1-trichloroethane in mice. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 59:1-7.

Next Section          Table of Contents The U.S. Government's Official Web PortalDepartment of Health and Human Services
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 4770 Buford Hwy NE, Atlanta, GA 30341
Contact CDC: 800-232-4636 / TTY: 888-232-6348

A-Z Index

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D
  5. E
  6. F
  7. G
  8. H
  9. I
  10. J
  11. K
  12. L
  13. M
  14. N
  15. O
  16. P
  17. Q
  18. R
  19. S
  20. T
  21. U
  22. V
  23. W
  24. X
  25. Y
  26. Z
  27. #