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The purpose of this health consultation is, at the request of the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA), toevaluate any human health hazards at the St. Louis Refrigerator Car Company site in Wood River, Illinois. The IllinoisDepartment of Public Health (IDPH) prepared this evaluation using the site information currently available, provided byIEPA, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and other agencies. IDPH made observations during a visit tothe site and surrounding area on May 28, 1997. IDPH staff conducted a file review at the IEPA Bureau of Land in 1997[1] and interviewed IEPA staff [2]. The Site Team Evaluation Prioritization CERCLA Report developed by IEPA in 1996[3] was the principal document used for this health consultation.

The St. Louis Refrigerator Car Company currently owns the Dome Railway Service at 435 Old St. Louis Road, WoodRiver, Illinois, 62095 (Figure 1). St. Louis Refrigerator Car Company has operated the facility from 1975 to the present[4]. Three acres in the southeast corner of the site was leased to Trailer Train Company in 1978 and sold to Wertz Weldingin 1987. Currently, the Dome Railway Services is a 36-acre facility that repairs railroad cars and removes and reappliesprimers and paints. At one time, former operators cleaned tank cars with solvents. Today, approximately 160 workers areemployed at the site. Figure 2 illustrates major features of the facility. Mineral spirits are used to clean stencils and vats,and paints (alkyl-d-enamel formulations) are reapplied. The usual paint cleaner for paint guns and lines contains toluene,xylene, methanol, and acetone [4]. Occasionally, vats are degreased with solvents. A hazardous waste contractor removesabout 8 to 10 drums of solvents from a storage area every 3 months. Approximately 18 to 64 tons of spent sandblastingwaste is stockpiled on the site each week [5]. This sandblasting waste was provided to municipalities and contractors foruse as backfill or trenching. Some facilities have considered using waste sand for other industrial processes [5].

In response to a request from IEPA to characterize the waste, the facility contracted with a laboratory in northern Illinois toanalyze a sample of spent sandblast waste in October 1990. The analyses were done to determine the hazardous wastecharacteristics of the solid material. No organic compounds were detected, but some metals were measured. The ToxicCharacteristic Leaching Procedure detected barium concentrations of 0.9 parts per million (ppm), cadmium at 0.01 ppm,chromium at 1.5 ppm, lead at 0.07 ppm, manganese at 0.51 ppm, and zinc at 6.7 ppm in the leachate. Arsenic, copper,mercury, nickel, selenium, and silver were not detected using this method. The spent sandblast waste sample was alsoanalyzed for weight to weight metal concentrations in the solid material. The results are shown in Table 1. IEPA's review of the one sample determined that this waste was nonhazardous.

Shortly after St. Louis Refrigerator Car acquired the property in the mid 1970s, old ponds used to impound unknownmaterials were excavated and filled with spent sandblast waste. The excavated sediments were piled near the westernborder and in the southwest corner of the site. In 1982, sampling was conducted for dioxins when it became known thatdriveways on the site may have been sprayed with waste oils. The analytical results for dioxins were negative.

The site is within an industrial area of the Mississippi American Bottoms floodplain (the Mississippi River basin). Otherthan the 325-foot diameter geodesic dome built in the late 1950s [3], the most distinguishing feature is the large number ofrail lines both on and off the site. Access is restricted and much of the facility has groundcover, blacktop, gravel, orbuildings. Areas where soils had been identified as contaminated following sampling by USEPA contractors in 1989 havebeen improved by the site operators. Because of the operators remediation efforts, the 1989 soil sampling data are notuseful for evaluation of current conditions.

Additional rail lines that cover most of the western half of the site were installed. The many berms constructed for railtransportation provide a barrier to surface water migration along the western border of the property and help protect the OldChannel Wood River. An agricultural field is planted with wheat between the rail lines and Highway 3. Old St. LouisRoad delineates most of the eastern border of the property. Many of the residential properties are east of the site, furtherfrom the river than the industrially zoned areas. The nearest home is approximately 2,000 feet from the facility [4]. Noprivate drinking water wells have been found; however, the Focused Site Evaluation [4] estimated that 37 people useprivate wells for drinking water within a 4-mile radius.

The site is topographically flat. Drainage ditches capture surface water and empty into the community storm water sewers. The Old Wood River is southwest of the site, and beyond that, the Mississippi River is the discharge point for the localsurface and ground waters. The Mississippi River is about 1 to 2 miles southwest of the site.

USEPA contractors collected nine soil samples and two background soil samples on October 24,1989. Analytical resultsare shown in Tables 1 and 2. Samples S1, S2, S3, and S9 were determined to be "source" areas contributing to surfacewater contaminant migration collected at the old water processing tank and drum (waste oil) storage area. In 1986, samplesof the sludges in the tank before removal contained 150 ppm lead, 92.9 ppm chromium, and 2.54 ppm arsenic. The samplecontained concentrations of toluene, acetone, semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), pesticides, and inorganiccompounds above background levels. The 1.72 acre area was remediated at the direction of IEPA and is currently used forparking. Runoff from the parking area flows into the northern ditch and is the location of 1995 sample point X201.

Soil samples S4, S5, and S6 were collected in an area where former operators of the site conducted uncontained stencilcleaning using solvents. These soil samples contained tetrachloroethene, other volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), and inorganic contaminants. At the direction of IEPA, gravel and concrete wereinstalled in this boggy area south of the old paint shop near the unlined pond used for disposal before 1976. The currentoperators constructed an additional building over part of the remediated pond area. Also present in this area is a sealed andcapped industrial well [3]. In 1990, underground fuel tanks were removed and backfilled according to regulations [5]. Adrainage ditch that leads away from this lowland and empties into city storm sewers was sampled in 1995 (duplicatesamples X202/X203) near the eastern fence line. When the former disposal pond was remediated in 1976, excavatedmaterial was piled on 0.8 acres at the southwest corner of the property. These piles remained for 18 years, and in 1994, thecurrent operators removed the material and underlying soils and covered the area with clean fill.

On November 15 and 16, 1995, IEPA collected sediment samples (two samples and one duplicate) from the northern andsouthern drainage ditch areas near the property boundaries. These ditches originated on the site and joined city stormsewers. The municipal storm sewers empty into settling ponds of the local levee district. Typically, the water evaporates,but during strong rainfall will discharge into the Mississippi River [3]. Sediment sample X201 was collected from thenorthern drainage ditch that was dry at the time of sampling. Twenty-one tentatively identified compounds (TICs) werefound in this sample. TICs are compounds not on the laboratory analysis list but are thought to be present in a sample. The second sample was a duplicate (X202/X203) collected from the east edge of the property at the southern drainageditch. At the time of the sampling event, the ditch was filled with about 3 feet of water that was flowing off the site. Pesticides, inorganic compounds, and 13 TICs were in the sample.

Two samples were also collected in November 1995 from Wood River community well #2 about one mile southwest of thesite. Well #2 is about 80 feet deep and was the well supplying community water on the day of sampling. The Wood Riverwater treatment facility supplies drinking water to approximately 12,500 residents [3]. Samples X501/X502 are duplicatesfrom municipal well #2. No chemicals were detected in the drinking water samples from well #2 at levels exceedingcomparison values.

Four on-site borings were drilled in an attempt to find groundwater. In a "background" parts storage area (the property'snortheast corner), water was not collected at G101 boring since the probe never reached a saturation zone. Thephotoionization detector/flame ionization detector (PID/FID) remained at background levels when testing from in theborehole or from the soil core. G102 was bored at the northwest corner of the site in a former drum and debris storage area.An aquifer was found at depths between 8 and 36 feet, but not enough volume was extracted to analyze a completespectrum of Target Compound List/Target Analyte List (TCL/TAL). In the field, no VOCs were detected with thePID/FID. Groundwater sample (G102) was tested for VOCs, SVOCs, and pesticides but was not analyzed for inorganiccompounds. No TCL compound was found in this sample, and concentrations of TICs were estimated at levels belowbenchmark levels. Most of the results were qualified by the laboratory, perhaps due to the small volume and the inabilityto meet necessary quality controls. G103 was bored at the southwest site corner but no groundwater was found. A 2-inchthick sand lens of water was found approximately 7 feet below surface level at the stencil cleaning area, G104. FIDregistered above 13% [3]. Once again, not enough water was in the lens to extract an adequate sample.

USEPA contractors scored a preliminary assessment for Superfund in 1995, and the site was given a low priority [4]. Theowners of the site have expressed an interest in the state's voluntary cleanup program.

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