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  1. Currently, the TFM site poses no apparent health hazard because there is limited exposure to on-site soils, sediment, and surface water. Frequent, long-term exposure to on-site soil would be a health concern.

  2. If the occupancy of the on-site residence changes in the future, exposure to site contaminants may increase and could pose a health hazard.

  3. Past worker exposure, during the operation of the smelter, is an indeterminate health hazard since not enough information is available to assess the level of contaminants or the extent of exposure.

  4. Because of limited sampling data and the possibility of disposal of slag material in residential areas, the off-site soil is concluded to be an indeterminate public health hazard. Given the unknown level or extent of lead contamination, it is prudent public health practice to have young children in the area tested for lead in their blood.

  5. The groundwater on-site is not currently being used for drinking water and therefore is not a public health hazard. ATSDR is unable to evaluate possible future exposures because of limited groundwater sampling data.


  1. Restrict access to the site.

  2. Consider all possible residential exposure scenarios in determining soil removal or remedial actions on the site.

  3. Encourage the population of Collinsville, and particularly the residents who live near the site, to bring their children ages 6 and under to the local Health Department for a free blood lead level screening.

  4. Determine the extent of off-site contamination and the possibility of disposal of slag material in residential areas.

  5. Determine if the groundwater is contaminated and, if warranted, prevent future exposure via on-site drinking water wells.


Public Health Actions Taken

  1. ATSDR (along with EPA, ODEQ, OSDH, and local and tribal representatives) toured the site and held a public meeting/public availability session on July 27, 1999. Community concerns were collected at that time.

Public Health Actions Planned

  1. ATSDR will review the environmental sampling results from the remedial investigation, including evidence of past off-site slag disposal. Based on these results, ATSDR will re-evaluate the need to monitor blood lead levels in the community and the need for health education or health risk communication.

  2. ATSDR will work with the other government agencies to inform area residents of the possible hazards at the TFM site.


Authors of Public Health Assessment
Barbara Cooper
Environmental Health Scientist
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation

John Crellin, PhD
Senior Environmental Epidemiologist
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation

Other Team Members
Maria Teran-MacIver
Community Involvement Specialist
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation

Patrick Young
Regional Representative, Region VI
Office of Regional Operations

Diane Paula Urban
Health Education Specialist
Division of Health Education and Promotion

Dave Campagna, PhD
Division of Health Studies


  1. Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality. Site Inspection Report, Tulsa Fuel & Manufacturing. September 30, 1994.

  2. Oklahoma Department of Health. Preliminary Assessment, Acme Brick Strip Mines, Collinsville, Oklahoma. November 16, 1992.

  3. START - Ecology & Environment. Memorandum. Site Reconnaissance of the Tulsa Fuel & Manufacturing Site. June 16, 1998.

  4. Ecology and Environment, Inc. Removal Assessment Report for Tulsa Fuel and Manufacturing Site, Collinsville, Tulsa County, Oklahoma. May 14, 1999.

  5. Kottke, Rita. Letter to ATSDR commenting on the Initial Release Public Health Assessment for Tulsa Fuels and Manufacturing NPL site. October 18, 1999.

  6. Crow, David - START. Memorandum to Tulsa Fuel & Manufacturing site file. March 26, 1998.

  7. Crow, David. Memorandum to Tulsa Fuel & Manufacturing SI file. September 16, 1994.

  8. Oklahoma State University and Oklahoma Mesonet. Internet web page listing Mesonet Wind Roses for Catoosa, Claremore, Skiatook, and Bixby, Oklahoma for 1994-1998. November 18, 1999.

  9. Mortality and morbidity requirement in superfund law.

  10. ATSDR. Public Health Assessment Guidance Manual. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. March 1992. Can be accessed at

  11. Williams, Robert C. Revision of health outcome data policy. 1996.

  12. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency/Environmental Response Team (EPA/ERT). Spectrace 9000 Field Portable X-Ray Fluorescence Operating Procedures. January 26, 1995.

  13. Cooper, Barbara. Agency Record of Activity - Trip Report from July 27, 1999. Tulsa Fuel & Manufacturing site. Atlanta, GA: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). August 25, 1999.

  14. Crow, David. Memorandum to Acme Brick (a.k.a. Tulsa Fuel & Mfg. Co.) Site PA file, regarding general sampling event of site. November 25, 1992.

  15. Kottke, Rita. Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality. Report on Horizontal Retort Smelters in Oklahoma. 1993.

  16. EPA. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) file on Toxicology Data Network (TOXNET). Bethesda, MD: National Library of Medicine (NLM). December 1998.

  17. Hill RN. Current EPA perspectives on animal selection and extrapolation. in (Roloff MV et al, eds) Human Risk Assessment. The Role of Animal Selection and Extrapolation. London: Taylor and Francis. 1987.

  18. Stallones RA. Epidemiology and Environmental Hazards. in (Gordis L and Libauer CH, eds) Epidemiology and Human Risk Assessment. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1988.

  19. Paustenbach DJ. A survey of health risk assessment. in (Paustenbach DJ, ed) The Risk Assessment of Environmental Hazards. A Textbook of Case Studies. New York: John Wiley and Sons. 1989.

  20. ATSDR. Toxicological Profile for Lead. Update. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1999.

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