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TABLES (Cont.)

Table 2.

Evaluation of Potential Exposure Pathways at TEAD
Pathway Name Contaminants Exposure Pathway Elements Time Comments
Source Environmental Media Point of Exposure Route of Exposure Potentially Exposed Population
Contaminated drinking water VOCs (primarily TCE) Groundwater plumes from industrial activities Groundwater On-site Ingestion TEAD employees (approximately 500 people) Past
No public health hazard. Drinking water supply wells are upgradient of contaminated groundwater plumes and have not been impacted. The drinking water has met and continues to meet all state and federal safe drinking water standards.
Contaminated drinking water VOCs (primarily TCE) Groundwater plumes from industrial activities Groundwater Off-site Ingestion Child
No public health hazard. Past and current uses of groundwater off site are not a concern because groundwater near TEAD has been only used for industrial operations, irrigation or live stock. Residents directly to the east and northeast of the TEAD boundary, where the TCE groundwater plumes are migrating off site, are connected to municipal water supplies operated by Tooele City.
Contaminated drinking water VOCs (primarily TCE) Groundwater plumes from industrial activities (e.g., IWL) Groundwater Off-site Ingestion
Residents who drink water from private wells that may be impacted by the TCE plume Future No apparent public health hazard. The northeast boundary TCE plume has migrated off site. New private wells that are installed downgradient and in close proximity to the plume may be impacted.
Air Explosives, metals, combustion products, particulate matter OB/OD activities Air Off-site Inhalation Child
No public health hazard. Materials released during OB/OD operations do not pose a public health hazard for communities near TEAD. Prior to 1990, detonation limits were higher than current levels and there is no air monitoring data; therefore the exposure prior to 1990 is classified as indeterminate.
Physical hazard Ordnance and explosive wastes Explosive materials from open detonation area Not applicable Off-site Physical hazard Adult - Individuals who work or trespass onto the agricultural property adjacent to the open detonation area (less than 5 people) Past
Public health hazard. Open detonation activities in the past resulted in ordnance and explosive waste being deposited on private property adjacent to the OB/OD unit. This may pose a safety hazard due to the potential for physical injuries from these materials.
Lead-contaminated soil Lead Lead shot used at the Skeet Range Soil On-site
(BRAC parcel)
Child - any children who may have been trespassing onto the property Past
No public health hazard. The Skeet Range does not pose a past or current public health hazard because access was restricted and possible contact with contaminated soil would have been very limited.
Lead-contaminated soil Lead Lead shot used at the Skeet Range Soil On-site
(BRAC parcel)
Child -future residential developments Future No public health hazard. Lead-contaminated soil was removed. Following DEQ approval for residential use, there will be no public health hazard for this site.

OB/OD = Open burning and open detonation; IWL = Industrial Waste Lagoon

Table 3.

aximum Contaminant Concentrations Exceeding ATSDR's Comparison Values Detected in On-Site Groundwater1.
Contaminant Well Number or Site ID Area of Contamination Approximate Sample Date Maximum Concentration
ATSDR's Comparison Value (ppb)
VOCs and SVOCs
Benzene* C17 (shallow well)
C17 (shallow well)
BRAC area
BRAC area
5 (MCL)
Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate C-22 Northeastern Plume 09/00/97 43 4.8 (RBC)
Carbon tetrachloride L-03-85
Main Plume
5 (MCL)
1,1-Dichloroethylene N-02C
Main Plume
Main Plume
0.06 (CREG)
Methylene chloride** L-04-85 NA 01/00/85 2,600 5 (MCL)
Trichloroethylene C-33
Northeast Plume
Northeast Plume
Northeast Plume
Main Plume
5 (MCL)
Antimony N-120-88 Main Plume 10/00/95 444 6 (MCL)
Arsenic WW-1
Main Plume
10 (MCL)
Cadmium N-02C Main Plume 01/00/86 60 5 (MCL)
Chromium N-133-90 Main Plume 04/00/01 66,700 100 (RMEG)
Lead L-02-85 NA 01/00/85 759 15 (EPA)
Selenium N-129-88 Main Plume 10/00/95 53 50 (MCL)
Thallium N-133-90 Main Plume 04/00/01 23 2 (MCL)
2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene N-02C NA 06/00/82 3 1 (CREG)
RDX N-03H NA 12/00/93 44 0.3 (CREG)
Dieldrin SB-46-092C NA 06/17/94 100 0.002 (CREG)

Sources: Tetra Tech. 1996; Kleinfelder 1998; IRDMIS database (May 2001).

CREG = Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide;
EPA = Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Action Level;
IRDMIS = Installation Restoration Data Management Information System;
MCL = EPA's Maximum Contaminant Level;
NA = data not available;
RBC = EPA's Risk Based Concentration

The concentrations presented in Table 3 are documented in the following hard copy reports:

Benzene concentration (5,680 ppb) -- Kleinfelder. 1999. Semi-Annual Groundwater Quality Report, Spring 1999. October 22, 1999.
Benzene concentration (101 ppb) -- Professional Services Group (PSG)/Klein. 2002. Annual Combined Groundwater Quality Report and Voluntary SWMU Sampling, Fall 2000. March 2002.

Bis (2-ethylhexyl)phthalate) (43 ppb) -- Kleinfelder. 1998. Eastern Boundary Groundwater Investigation; Report of Findings. June 4, 1998.

Carbon Tetrachloride (170 ppb) -- Woodward-Clyde Consultants (WWC). 1986. Groundwater Quality Assessment. April 23, 1986.
Carbon Tetrachloride (61 ppb) -- PSG. 2000. Semi-Annual Groundwater Quality Report, September 2000. October 16, 2000.

1,1-Dichloroethylene (310 ppb) -- WWC. 1986. Groundwater Quality Assessment . April 23, 1986.
1,1-Dichloroethylene (37 ppb) -- PSG/Klein. 2002. Semi-Annual Combined Groundwater Quality Report and Voluntary SWMU Sampling, Spring 2002. October 2002.
1,1-Dichloroethylene (22 ppb) -- PSG/Klein. 2003. Semi-Annual Combined Groundwater Quality Report and Voluntary SWMU Sampling, Fall 2002. March 2003.

Methylene Chloride (2,600 ppb) -- WWC. 1988. Groundwater Quality Assessment. April 23, 1986.

Trichloroethylene (3,430 ppb)-- PSG. 2001. Annual Groundwater Quality Report. March 22, 2001.
Trichloroethylene (2,950 ppb)-- PSG/Klein. 2002. Semi-Annual Combined Groundwater Quality Report and Voluntary SWMU Sampling, Fall 2002. March 2003.

Antimony (440 ppb) -- Geomatrix. 1996. Groundwater Monitoring Report, Fall 1995. October 1996.
Arsenic (98 ppb) -- WWC. 1986. Groundwater Quality Assessment. April 23, 1986.
Cadmium (60 ppb) -- WWC. 1986. Groundwater Quality Assessment. April 23, 1986.
Chromium (66,700 ppb) -- Innovative Technical Solutions, Inc. (ITSI). 2001. Draft Spring 2001 Groundwater Sampling and Analysis Report. July 2001.
Lead (759 ppb) -- WWC. 1986. Groundwater Quality Assessment. April 23, 1986.
Selenium (53 ppb) -- Geomatrix. 1996. Groundwater Monitoring Report, Fall 1995. October 1996.
Thallium (23 ppb) -- ITSI. 2001. Draft Spring 2001 Groundwater Sampling and Analysis Report. July 2001.
2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (3 ppb) -- ERTEC. 1982. Assessment of Environmental Contamination, Exploratory Stage. October 31, 1982.
RDX (44 ppb) -- Kleinfelder. 1998. Groundwater Monitoring Report, Fall 1997. September 1998.

1 In addition to the maximum concentration, ATSDR has also presented one or two other values (usually the most recent concentration from the monitoring well that detected the maximum concentration) detected above ATSDR's CVs at TEAD.for some of the most frequently detected chemicals

* The source of the maximum benzene concentration is an UST located in the BRAC Parcel. The benzene contamination associated with this UST spill is isolated to a few monitoring wells (i.e., C-16, C-17, and C-35) and levels have been decreasing over time.

** Methylene Chloride is a common laboratory contaminant. There is no consistent pattern of methylene chloride detected in any of the monitoring wells at TEAD and it is unlikely that the random detections were due to site-related contaminants.

Table 4.

Maximum Contaminant Concentrations Exceeding ATSDR's Comparison Values Detected in Off-Site Groundwater
Contaminant Location Well Number Sample Date(s) Maximum Concentration
ATSDR's Comparison Value (ppb)
Trichloroethylene (TCE) Northeast boundary of depot, northwest of the TEAD maintenance area - about 250-300 feet from monitoring well C-10 Bolinder Well July 1997
October 1997
220 5 (MCL)
TCE Northeast TEAD boundary Well A May 2001 141 5 (MCL)
TCE Northeast TEAD boundary Well B May 2001 29.6 5 (MCL)
TCE Northeast TEAD boundary Well F May 2001 28.2 5 (MCL)
TCE Northeast TEAD boundary Well M May 2001 8.9 5 (MCL)

Source: TEAD. Off-site Well Installation update. July 2001; Dames & Moore 1998

Table 5.

Summary of Ambient Air Monitoring Data at the Grantsville Air Monitoring Station
Parameter Frequency of Monitoring Date Monitoring Began Date Monitoring Stopped Maximum Concentration Screening Value Type ATSDR's Comparison Value
Cl2 3-day averages 8/93 8/96 NA 50 ug/m3 TLV-TWA
30 days
370 ug/m3
Cl2 continuous 8/96 7/98 NA 50 ug/m3 TLV-TWA
30 days
370 ug/m3
HCl continuous* 8/98 ongoing 21 ug/m3 70 ug/m3 State of Utah Guideline 21 ug/m3
PM10 every 6 days
(24 hours)
4/93 12/97 186 ug/m3**
133 ug/m3
150 ug/m3 NAAQS n/a
PM2.5 every 6 days
(24 hours)
1/99 ongoing 34 ug/m3 65 ug/m3 NAAQS n/a
SO2 continuous
(24 hours)
4/93 9/97 10 ug/m3 365 ug/m3 NAAQS n/a

Source: EPA's Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS); Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Air Quality.
* Has operated intermittently due to technical difficulties
** EPA waived this measurement because the high reading was due to road paving activities

Cl2 = Chloride
HCL = Hydrogen chloride
PM 10 = Particulate matter less than 10 microns
PM 2.5 = Particulate matter less than 2.5 microns
SO2 = Sulfur dioxide
ug/m3 = micrograms per cubic meter
NAAQS = National Ambient air Quality Standard
TLV-TWA = Threshold Limit Value - Time Weighted Average
TLV-C = Threshold Limit Value - Ceiling
NA = Data not available


TEAD and Tooele Valley Map
Figure 1. TEAD and Tooele Valley Map

Map of TEAD-N and Location of Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) Associated with the Operable Units at TEAD
Figure 2a. Map of TEAD-N and Location of Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) Associated with the Operable Units at TEAD

Map of TEAD-N and Location of Known-Release SWMUs at TEAD
Figure 2b. Map of TEAD-N and Location of Known-Release SWMUs at TEAD

Map of TEAD-N and Location of Suspected-Release SWMUs at TEAD
Figure 2c. Map of TEAD-N and Location of Suspected-Release SWMUs at TEAD

Approximate Plume Locations and Subsurface Water Flow
Figure 3. Approximate Plume Locations and Subsurface Water Flow

ATSDR Exposure Evaluation Process
Figure 4. ATSDR Exposure Evaluation Process



Comparison values represent media-specific contaminant concentrations that are used to select contaminants for further evaluation to determine the possibility of adverse public health effects. The conclusion that a contaminant exceeds the comparison value does not mean that it will cause adverse health effects.

Cancer Risk Evaluation Guides (CREGs)
CREGS are estimated contaminant concentrations that would be expected to cause no more than one excess cancer in a million (10-6) persons exposed over their lifetime. ATSDR's CREGs are calculated from EPA's cancer potency factors (CPFs).

Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL)
The MCL is the drinking water standard established by EPA. It is the maximum permissible level of a contaminant in water that is delivered to the free-flowing outlet. MCLs are considered protective of public health over a lifetime (70 years) for individuals consuming 2 liters of water per day.

Environmental Media Evaluation Guides (EMEGs)
EMEGs are based on ATSDR minimal risk levels (MRLs) that consider body weight and ingestion rates. An EMEG is an estimate of daily human exposure to a chemical (in mg/kg/day) that is likely to be without noncarcinogenic health effects over a specified duration of exposure to include acute, intermediate, and chronic exposures.

Reference Media Evaluation Guides (RMEGs)
ATSDR derives RMEGs from EPA's oral reference doses. The RMEG represents the concentration in water or soil at which daily human exposure is unlikely to result in adverse noncarcinogenic effects.


The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) is a federal public healthagency with headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia, and 10 regional offices in the United States.ATSDR's mission is to serve the public by using the best science, taking responsive public healthactions, and providing trusted health information to prevent harmful exposures and diseasesrelated to toxic substances. ATSDR is not a regulatory agency, unlike the U.S. EnvironmentalProtection Agency (EPA), which is the federal agency that develops and enforces environmentallaws to protect the environment and human health. This glossary defines words used by ATSDRin communications with the public. It is not a complete dictionary of environmental health terms.If you have questions or comments, call ATSDR's toll-free telephone number, 1-888-42-ATSDR(1-888-422-8737).

General Terms

Adverse health effect :
A change in body function or cell structure that might lead to disease or health problems

Ambient :
Surrounding (for example, ambient air).

Analyte :
A substance measured in the laboratory. A chemical for which a sample (such as water, air, orblood) is tested in a laboratory. For example, if the analyte is mercury, the laboratory test willdetermine the amount of mercury in the sample.

Background level :
An average or expected amount of a substance or radioactive material in a specific environment,or typical amounts of substances that occur naturally in an environment.

Cancer :
Any one of a group of diseases that occur when cells in the body become abnormal and grow ormultiply out of control.

Cancer risk :
A theoretical risk for getting cancer if exposed to a substance every day for 70 years (a lifetimeexposure). The true risk might be lower.

Carcinogen :
A substance that causes cancer.

[see Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of1980]

Chronic :
Occurring over a long time [compare with acute].

Chronic exposure :
Contact with a substance that occurs over a long time (more than 1 year) [compare with acuteexposure and intermediate duration exposure]

Comparison value (CV) :
Calculated concentration of a substance in air, water, food, or soil that is unlikely to causeharmful (adverse) health effects in exposed people. The CV is used as a screening level duringthe public health assessment process. Substances found in amounts greater than their CVs mightbe selected for further evaluation in the public health assessment process.

Completed exposure pathway:
[see exposure pathway].

Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980(CERCLA) :
CERCLA, also known as Superfund, is the federal law that concerns the removal or cleanup ofhazardous substances in the environment and at hazardous waste sites. ATSDR, which wascreated by CERCLA, is responsible for assessing health issues and supporting public healthactivities related to hazardous waste sites or other environmental releases of hazardoussubstances. This law was later amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act(SARA).

Concentration :
The amount of a substance present in a certain amount of soil, water, air, food, blood, hair, urine,breath, or any other media.

Contaminant :
A substance that is either present in an environment where it does not belong or is present atlevels that might cause harmful (adverse) health effects.

Dermal :
Referring to the skin. For example, dermal absorption means passing through the skin.

Dermal contact :
Contact with (touching) the skin [see route of exposure].

Detection limit :
The lowest concentration of a chemical that can reliably be distinguished from a zeroconcentration.

United States Department of Defense.

Dose (for chemicals that are not radioactive):
The amount of a substance to which a person is exposed over some time period. Dose is ameasurement of exposure. Dose is often expressed as milligram (amount) per kilogram (ameasure of body weight) per day (a measure of time) when people eat or drink contaminatedwater, food, or soil. In general, the greater the dose, the greater the likelihood of an effect. An"exposure dose" is how much of a substance is encountered in the environment. An "absorbeddose" is the amount of a substance that actually got into the body through the eyes, skin,stomach, intestines, or lungs.

Environmental media :
Soil, water, air, biota (plants and animals), or any other parts of the environment that can containcontaminants.

Environmental media and transport mechanism :
Environmental media include water, air, soil, and biota (plants and animals). Transportmechanisms move contaminants from the source to points where human exposure can occur. Theenvironmental media and transport mechanism is the second part of an exposure pathway.

United States Environmental Protection Agency.

Epidemiology :
The study of the distribution and determinants of disease or health status in a population; thestudy of the occurrence and causes of health effects in humans.

Exposure :
Contact with a substance by swallowing, breathing, or touching the skin or eyes. Exposure maybe short-term [acute exposure], of intermediate duration, or long-term [chronic exposure].

Exposure assessment :
The process of finding out how people come into contact with a hazardous substance, how oftenand for how long they are in contact with the substance, and how much of the substance they arein contact with.

Exposure pathway :
The route a substance takes from its source (where it began) to its end point (where it ends), andhow people can come into contact with (or get exposed to) it. An exposure pathway has fiveparts: a source of contamination (such as an abandoned business); an environmental media andtransport mechanism (such as movement through groundwater); a point of exposure (such as aprivate well); a route of exposure (eating, drinking, breathing, or touching), and a receptorpopulation (people potentially or actually exposed). When all five parts are present, the exposurepathway is termed a completed exposure pathway.

Groundwater :
Water beneath the earth's surface in the spaces between soil particles and between rock surfaces[compare with surface water].

Hazard :
A source of potential harm from past, current, or future exposures.

Hazardous waste :
Potentially harmful substances that have been released or discarded into the environment.

Health consultation :
A review of available information or collection of new data to respond to a specific healthquestion or request for information about a potential environmental hazard. Health consultationsare focused on a specific exposure issue. Health consultations are therefore more limited than apublic health assessment, which reviews the exposure potential of each pathway and chemical[compare with public health assessment].

Indeterminate public health hazard :
The category used in ATSDR's public health assessment documents when a professionaljudgment about the level of health hazard cannot be made because information critical to such adecision is lacking.

Incidence :
The number of new cases of disease in a defined population over a specific time period [contrastwith prevalence].

Ingestion :
The act of swallowing something through eating, drinking, or mouthing objects. A hazardoussubstance can enter the body this way [see route of exposure].

Inhalation :
The act of breathing. A hazardous substance can enter the body this way [see route of exposure].

mg/kg :
Milligram per kilogram.

Minimal risk level (MRL) :
An ATSDR estimate of daily human exposure to a hazardous substance at or below which thatsubstance is unlikely to pose a measurable risk of harmful (adverse), noncancerous effects.MRLs are calculated for a route of exposure (inhalation or oral) over a specified time period(acute, intermediate, or chronic). MRLs should not be used as predictors of harmful (adverse)health effects [see reference dose].

National Priorities List for Uncontrolled Hazardous Waste Sites (National Priorities List orNPL) :
EPA's list of the most serious uncontrolled or abandoned hazardous waste sites in the UnitedStates. The NPL is updated on a regular basis.

No apparent public health hazard :
A category used in ATSDR's public health assessments for sites where human exposure tocontaminated media might be occurring, might have occurred in the past, or might occur in thefuture, but where the exposure is not expected to cause any harmful health effects.

No-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) :
The highest tested dose of a substance that has been reported to have no harmful (adverse) healtheffects on people or animals.

[see National Priorities List for Uncontrolled Hazardous Waste Sites]

Plume :
A volume of a substance that moves from its source to places farther away from the source.Plumes can be described by the volume of air or water they occupy and the direction they move.For example, a plume can be a column of smoke from a chimney or a substance moving withgroundwater.

Point of exposure :
The place where someone can come into contact with a substance present in the environment [seeexposure pathway].

Population :
A group or number of people living within a specified area or sharing similar characteristics(such as occupation or age).

ppb :
Parts per billion.

ppm :
Parts per million.

Prevalence :
The number of existing disease cases in a defined population during a specific time period[contrast with incidence].

Prevention :
Actions that reduce exposure or other risks, keep people from getting sick, or keep disease fromgetting worse.

Public comment period :
An opportunity for the public to comment on agency findings or proposed activities contained indraft reports or documents. The public comment period is a limited time period during whichcomments will be accepted.

Public health action :
A list of steps to protect public health.

Public health advisory :
A statement made by ATSDR to EPA or a state regulatory agency that a release of hazardoussubstances poses an immediate threat to human health. The advisory includes recommendedmeasures to reduce exposure and reduce the threat to human health.

Public health assessment (PHA) :
An ATSDR document that examines hazardous substances, health outcomes, and communityconcerns at a hazardous waste site to determine whether people could be harmed from cominginto contact with those substances. The PHA also lists actions that need to be taken to protectpublic health [compare with health consultation].

Public health hazard :
A category used in ATSDR's public health assessments for sites that pose a public health hazardbecause of long-term exposures (greater than 1 year) to sufficiently high levels of hazardoussubstances or radionuclides that could result in harmful health effects.

Public health hazard categories :
Public health hazard categories are statements about whether people could be harmed byconditions present at the site in the past, present, or future. One or more hazard categories mightbe appropriate for each site. The five public health hazard categories are no public health hazard,no apparent public health hazard, indeterminate public health hazard, public health hazard, andurgent public health hazard.

Public health statement:
The first chapter of an ATSDR toxicological profile. The public health statement is a summarywritten in words that are easy to understand. The public health statement explains how peoplemight be exposed to a specific substance and describes the known health effects of thatsubstance.

[see Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (1976, 1984)]

Receptor population :
People who could come into contact with hazardous substances [see exposure pathway].

Reference dose (RfD) :
An EPA estimate, with uncertainty or safety factors built in, of the daily lifetime dose of asubstance that is unlikely to cause harm in humans.

Remedial investigation :
The CERCLA process of determining the type and extent of hazardous material contamination ata site.

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (1976, 1984) (RCRA):
This Act regulates management and disposal of hazardous wastes currently generated, treated,stored, disposed of, or distributed.

RCRA Facility Assessment. An assessment required by RCRA to identify potential and actualreleases of hazardous chemicals.

[see reference dose]

Risk :
The probability that something will cause injury or harm.

Route of exposure :
The way people come into contact with a hazardous substance. Three routes of exposure arebreathing [inhalation], eating or drinking [ingestion], or contact with the skin [dermal contact].

Safety factor:
[see uncertainty factor]

[see Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act]

Sample :
A portion or piece of a whole. A selected subset of a population or subset of whatever is beingstudied. For example, in a study of people the sample is a number of people chosen from a largerpopulation [see population]. An environmental sample (for example, a small amount of soil orwater) might be collected to measure contamination in the environment at a specific location.

Sample size :
The number of units chosen from a population or an environment.

Solvent :
A liquid capable of dissolving or dispersing another substance (for example, acetone or mineralspirits).

Source of contamination :
The place where a hazardous substance comes from, such as a landfill, waste pond, incinerator,storage tank, or drum. A source of contamination is the first part of an exposure pathway.

Statistics :
A branch of mathematics that deals with collecting, reviewing, summarizing, and interpretingdata or information. Statistics are used to determine whether differences between study groupsare meaningful.

Substance :
A chemical.

[see Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of1980 (CERCLA) and Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA)

Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) :
In 1986, SARA amended the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, andLiability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) and expanded the health-related responsibilities of ATSDR.CERCLA and SARA direct ATSDR to look into the health effects from substance exposures athazardous waste sites and to perform activities including health education, health studies,surveillance, health consultations, and toxicological profiles.

Surface water :
Water on the surface of the earth, such as in lakes, rivers, streams, ponds, and springs [comparewith groundwater].

Survey :
A systematic collection of information or data. A survey can be conducted to collect informationfrom a group of people or from the environment. Surveys of a group of people can be conductedby telephone, by mail, or in person. Some surveys are done by interviewing a group of people[see prevalence survey].

Toxicological profile :
An ATSDR document that examines, summarizes, and interprets information about a hazardoussubstance to determine harmful levels of exposure and associated health effects. A toxicologicalprofile also identifies significant gaps in knowledge on the substance and describes areas wherefurther research is needed.

Toxicology :
The study of the harmful effects of substances on humans or animals.

Urgent public health hazard :
A category used in ATSDR's public health assessments for sites where short-term exposures (lessthan 1 year) to hazardous substances or conditions could result in harmful health effects thatrequire rapid intervention.

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) :
Organic compounds that evaporate readily into the air. VOCs include substances such asbenzene, toluene, methylene chloride, and methyl chloroform.

Other glossaries and dictionaries:

Environmental Protection Agency (

National Center for Environmental Health (CDC)(

National Library of Medicine (NIH)(

For more information on the work of ATSDR, please contact:

Office of Policy and External Affairs
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
1600 Clifton Road, N.E. (MS E-60)
Atlanta, GA 30333
Telephone: (404) 498-0080


ATSDR received comments from several different sources for the Public Health Assessment forthe Tooele Army Depot. Comments providing clarification of, or editorial changes to, the textwere made and are not listed below. Comments or concerns about the information presented inthe text are summarized below along with the ATSDR response.

Comment: On page 22 and Page 70 (Actions completed # 3)
What was found from sampling these off-site wells? Was contamination found?

Response: The comment is referring to the five rounds of water sampling conducted by a UtahDepartment of Environmental Quality contractor beginning in April 1997. The results of thissampling effort are summarized on page 34 under the section titled "Past and Current Use ofOff-Site Private Drinking Water Wells, Municipal Wells, and Other Private Supply Wells tothe North and East of the Northern Boundary of the Depot." A portion of the summary appearsbelow:

"The Bolinder well has been sampled at five different times between April 1997 and April 1998.The groundwater samples from the Bolinder well were only analyzed for TCE since this is theprimary contaminant that has been detected in the TEAD northeastern boundary plume. Themaximum TCE concentration (220 ppb) was detected during July and October 1997. The lowestTCE concentration (140 ppb) was detected in January 1998 (Dames & Moore 1998b)."

Comment: The OB/OD plume contains a significant amount of toxic chemicals, how can that notbe affecting the health of Grantsville residents?

Response: Additional information was added to the section describing results of reports andstudies reviewed by ATSDR during the evaluation of the potential air exposure to compoundsreleased from OB/OD operations at TEAD.

The conclusion that air contaminants released during OB/OD events at TEAD do not pose apublic health hazard is based on a combination of reports and studies. Tests conducted by theArmy and EPA measured the emission of hundreds of chemicals which could potentially bereleased during OB/OD operations. This testing indicates that PM10, carbon dioxide, and carbonmonoxide are emitted from OB/OD events at significantly higher concentrations than anythingelse. However, the ambient air concentration of PM10 measured on days when OD eventsoccurred was similar to the concentration measured on days without OD events; for bothmonitors located 1 mile downwind of the site and in Grantsville. The available evidenceindicates that at the current detonation limits, there is no measurable difference in PM10 inGrantsville due to OB/OD events. Based on these results and the results of the bang-box tests, itis unlikely that the health of Grantsville residents would be affected by any of the compoundsreleased during OD events.

Comment: The normal wind pattern pulls dust from the OB/OD operations into Grantsvillehomes, how can that not be affecting the health of Grantsville residents?

Response: Results of soil sampling reported in the Hazardous Waste Storage, Incineration, andOpen Burning/Open Detonation Permit Tooele Army Depot (April 2002) Attachment 26 OB/ODRisk Assessment and Risk Management, were compared with available ATSDR and EPAscreening values for residential soil. The soil samples were taken from the northeast corner of thepost, between the OB/OD site and the post boundary, and from the Box Elder Wash which is alsolocated on-post. The chemical concentrations in the soil were similar for both locations.Chemicals detected include: 2,3,7,8-TCDD, aluminum, arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium,chromium, copper, iron, lead, mercury, nickel, potassium, silver, and zinc. All of the chemicalswere detected at low concentrations; below levels known to be protective of public health. Inaddition, all of the chemicals were detected at concentrations commonly found in soil around thecountry. These results indicate that normal exposure to the soil will not lead to adverse healtheffects.

Comment: The Grantsville community needs to have a personal baseline health assessment.

Response: ATSDR does not have the legal authority to provide medical care, diagnosis ortreatment. The purpose of a public health assessment for the Tooele Army Depot was to look atthe available environmental data to identify if local community members were, or are, exposed tocontaminants released at the depot at concentrations that could cause adverse public healtheffects. The key to this process is identifying and evaluating the potential exposure of thecommunity members to the contaminants released on-post.

At sites where the public health assessment does identify an exposure of a community to site-released chemicals that could cause adverse health effects, ATSDR may conduct a health study.Typically a health study utilizes epidemiologic, surveillance or other investigative techniques toimprove our understanding of the relationship between exposure to hazardous substances andadverse human health effects. For the communities surrounding the Tooele Army Depot, ATSDRdid not identify any exposure to site-related chemicals that may cause adverse health effects.

Comment: Grantsville homeowners need to have their property damage caused by OB/ODlooked at.

Response: ATSDR does not have the authority to inspect property or evaluate the OB/ODoperations for potential effects on residential structures. ATSDR contacted the legal office of theTooele Army Depot for information on how residents could submit a claim to the Army fordamage potentially caused by depot operations. All claims are adjudicated by the regional officelocated at Fort Collins, CO. Claim forms, and assistance in completing and filing those forms,are available from the Tooele Army Depot's legal office. The legal office is located on TEAD at building T-1 (435-833-2536).

Table of Contents The U.S. Government's Official Web PortalDepartment of Health and Human Services
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 4770 Buford Hwy NE, Atlanta, GA 30341
Contact CDC: 800-232-4636 / TTY: 888-232-6348

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