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  1. The Raymark facility site posed a Public Health Hazard based on likely worker exposures to contaminated soil containing lead, asbestos, and PCBs and possible exposures to airborne asbestos in the past. In addition, residents living near the facility may have been exposed to airborne asbestos during facility operations. Currently much of the site is paved reducing the potential for exposure to contaminated soil. Waste stored on site is covered. Activities on the site must be monitored to ensure that exposure to contamination does not occur. A health threat exists for anyone who trespasses on the site.

  2. Currently, off site locations pose no apparent health threat due to the interim measures taken by CT DEP, EPA, the Town and the property owners to prevent exposures to the waste pending final clean-up actions. These sites include Wooster Junior High School/North Playing field, Raybestos Memorial field, Housatonic Boat Club, Short Beach Park, Wooster Park, Birds Eye Boat Ramp, Beacon Point Road, Spada Area/Commercial Properties, Morgan Francis Property, Fagan's Restaurant, Del Buono property, Stratford Marina and Salce property. These areas presented a Public Health Hazard in the past as residents, workers and recreational users were likely exposed to lead, asbestos and PCBs through ingestion and dermal exposures and possibly inhalation.

  3. Residential properties that were found to have contamination present in surface soil presented an Imminent Health Hazard in the past. Residents were likely exposed to lead, asbestos and PCBs through ingestion and dermal contact with soil and possibly inhalation exposures. No health threat currently exists at these properties as interim and final measures have been implemented including the excavation and removal of contaminated soil.

  4. American eels caught from Selby Pond present a health threat due to the presence of PCB contamination. Fish, particularly white catfish, caught from Brewster Pond present a health threat due to the presence of chlordane contamination, unrelated to Raymark waste.

  5. Additional information regarding the groundwater at the Raymark facility needs to be evaluated to determine how the groundwater is migrating, the extent to which contaminated water is impacting downgradient areas and the likelihood of volatile organic compounds in the groundwater to off-gas and accumulate in structures.

  6. Additional sediment data from Ferry Creek needs to be evaluated to determine the public health implications of direct contact exposures.

  7. The voluntary blood lead screening program conducted by the Stratford Health Department and CT DPH during the summer of 1993 did not identify higher than expected blood lead levels. However, this blood lead screening program was voluntary and did not represent all Stratford children. Also the program was conducted several months after exposure to the waste was minimized.

  8. Overall cancer incidence in Stratford was not elevated during the years 1958-1991. However, the incidence of bladder cancer was 14% higher than Connecticut rates. Mesothelioma was slightly elevated and cancer among persons less than 25 years of age was 22% higher than state rates.


  1. Institutional controls are needed for areas where permanent remediation is not possible. This has occurred at a few residential properties because the integrity of a structure would have been compromised if excavation took place, groundwater was reached during excavation or a utility line was encountered. In addition, interim measures such as maintaining fences, temporary covers, and signs prohibiting access need to be maintained until permanent remediation takes place or institutional controls are in place.

  2. ATSDR and CT DPH should continue to work with EPA and CT DEP during permanent remediation activities to ensure that measures are taken to protect public health.

  3. Additional data including groundwater contamination data off-site, soil gas measurements and possibly indoor air samples of nearby structures, should be evaluated to determine the downgradient impacts of the groundwater contamination from the Raymark site and the potential for off-gassing of volatile contaminants into structures.

  4. CT DPH should continue to work with the Stratford Health Department to assist with continued community education and involvement.

Health Activities Recommendation Panel

The data and information evaluated in the public health assessment for Raymark Industries, Inc. and Related Sites, Stratford, Connecticut have been reviewed by ATSDR's Health Activities Recommendation Panel (HARP) for appropriate follow-up health activities. The panel determined that community health education should be continued. Future community health education efforts should focus on informing the community on the health aspects of remedial activities at the site and the results of on-going health studies. The panel also determined that the collaborative efforts between ATSDR, the CT DPH and the Stratford Health Department should continue with these future educational efforts. The panel determined that the need for further follow up health activities should be considered once the results of the GIS study and other on-going studies are available for review.


The Public Health Action Plan for Raymark Industries, Inc, and Related Sites contains a description of actions to be taken by ATSDR, the CT DPH and other agencies. For those actions already taken, please see the Public Health Actions Taken During Health Assessment Process section of the document. The purpose of the Public Health Action Plan is to ensure that this public health assessment not only identifies public health hazards but provides a plan of action designed to mitigate and prevent adverse human health effects resulting from exposures at the site(s). Included is a commitment on the part of ATSDR and CT DPH to follow up on this plan to ensure that it is implemented. The public health actions to be implemented are as follows:

  1. ATSDR and CT DPH will continue to work with EPA and CT DEP as permanent remediation activities move forward.

  2. ATSDR and CT DPH will continue to review data from post-excavation activities and additional sampling data collected as part of the Raymark/Stratford investigation.

  3. CT DPH will evaluate the public health implications of direct exposure to Ferry Creek sediments when the data are available.

  4. CT DPH and ATSDR will continue to work with the Stratford Health Department to provide timely information to the public as activities in Stratford continue.

  5. CT DPH will complete the ongoing health studies and report the findings to the Stratford Community.

  6. The ATSDR's HARP will evaluate the results of the GIS study and other on-going studies to determine the need for additional health activities at the site.

ATSDR will reevaluate and expand the Public Health Action Plan when needed. New environmental, toxicological, or health outcome data, or the results of implementing the above proposed actions may determine the need for additional actions at this site.


The public health assessment for the Raymark Industries, Inc., and Related sites was prepared by the Connecticut Department of Public Health and Addition Services under a cooperative agreement with the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). It is in accordance with approved methodology and procedures existing at the time the public health assessment was initiated.

Tina Forrester for
Greg Ulirsch
Technical Project Officer, SPS, SSAB, DHAC

The Division of Health Assessment and Consultation (DHAC), ATSDR, has reviewed this public health assessemnt and concurs with its findings.

Richard Gillig
for Chief, SSAB, DHAC, ATSDR


Jennifer Carnes Kertanis
Environmental Epidemiology and Occupational Health
CT Department of Public Health

Diane Denis Aye
Environmental Epidemiology and Occupational Health
CT Department of Public Health

ATSDR Regional Representative:
Susanne Simon
ATSDR, EPA Region I, Boston, MA

ATSDR Technical Project Officer:
Greg Ulirsch
ATSDR, Atlanta, GA


  1. EPA Region I, Pollution Report and RCRA file information.

  2. ATSDR Public Health Advisory: Raymark Industries/Stratford Asbestos Sites, May 26, 1993.

  3. ATSDR Memorandum: Health Consultation. From L. House(ATSDR Region I), to A. Sherrin (EPA Region I). March 6, 1989.

  4. ATSDR Verbal health Consultation: Raymark Industries, Ind. From L. Wilder (ATSDR) to A. Wing (EPA Region I). March 3, 1993.

  5. ATSDR Health Consultation: Raybestos Memorial Field. From R. Nickle (ATSDR) to A. Wing (EPA Region I). August 11, 1992.

  6. ATSDR Verbal Health Consultation: Raymark Industries, Inc. From L. House (ATSDR Region I) to A. Wing (EPA Region I). March 6, 1992.

  7. ATSDR Health Consultation: Residential Properties, Stratford/Raymark Sites. September 16, 1993.

  8. Surface Soil Sampling Screening Results, Stratford, CT. April, 1993 through October 1994.

  9. ATSDR Toxicological Profile for Asbestos. ATSDR/TP-90/04.

  10. ATSDR Toxicological Profile for Lead. ATSDR/TP-92/12.

  11. ATSDR Toxicological Profile for Selected PCBs. ATSDR/TP-92/16.

  12. Rabinowitz et al., "Environmental Correlated of Infant Blood Lead Levels in Boston." Environmental Research. 38, 96-107, 1985.

  13. Rabinowitz, Michael B. and David C. Bellinger, "Soil Lead-Blood Lead Relationship Among Boston Children." Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 41, 791-797, 1988.

  14. CDC Preventing Lead Poisoning in Young Children. October 1991.

  15. Madhaven et al., "Lead in Soil: recommended Permissible Levels." Environmental Research. 49,136-142, 1989.

  16. ATSDR Case Studies in Environmental Medicine Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Toxicity. ATSDR, June 1990.

  17. Remedial Investigation Report. Prepared for EPA by Halliburton NUS Corporation, April 1995.

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