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This site is currently determined to be an indeterminate public health hazard. The limitedavailable data do not indicate that humans are being exposed to levels of contamination thatwould be expected to cause adverse health effects. However, data or information are notavailable for all environmental media to which humans may be exposed. Furthercharacterization of surface water and biota from the James River is needed to confirm thatexposure to these media will not result in adverse health effects. Since the greatest concentrationof contaminants occurs in surface soils and the debris piles, fugitive dust is a potential pathwayfor human exposure.

In the past, workers were exposed to elevated levels of lead and possibly other contaminants on-site. These exposures ended in 1985 with the end of the battery recovery operations.

Although ground water beneath the site has become contaminated, residential wells have notshown contamination, to date. It is possible that exposures could occur in the future if thecontaminated groundwater plume were to migrate to the residential wells being used for drinkingwater.

Soil and sediment contamination extends beyond the site. This presents a potential for persons,especially children, in the area coming into contact with and ingesting displaced on-sitecontaminants. However, this does not presently appear likely since children do not appear toplay in the vicinity of the site.

RECOMMENDATIONS Cease/Reduce Exposure Recommendations:
1) Dust control measures should be used during processing and/or transport of on-site soils. Airmonitoring during remedial operations would be prudent.
2) Choices for future land use of the site and adjacent areas should reflect consideration of thepotential for elevated lead concentrations in the surface soil.
3) A ground water monitoring program should be initiated. Residential wells downgradient fromthe site should be regularly monitored. If elevated levels of site contaminants appear in thesewells, alternative water should be provided.

Site Characterization Recommendations:
4) Further characterize the surface water in the James River when surface water from the site isflowing into the River.
5) If further sampling of surface water indicates that the James River is being impacted by thesite, it is recommended that fish from the James River be sampled to determine the levels of sitecontaminants in species that might be consumed by the public.

Health Activities Recommendation Panel (HARP) Recommendations:

The data and information developed in the C&R Battery Public Health Assessment have beenevaluated for appropriate follow-up health actions. The ATSDR Health ActivitiesRecommendation Panel (HARP) determined that no follow-up health actions are indicated at thistime because there is no indication that people are being exposed to levels of contamination thatwould be expected to result in adverse health effects. ATSDR will reevaluate this site foradditional follow-up public health actions if new data become available that indicate a need to doso.


The purpose of the Public Health Action Plan (PHAP) is to ensure that this public healthassessment not only identifies public health hazards, but also provides a plan of action designedto mitigate and prevent adverse human health effects resulting from exposure to hazardoussubstances in the environment.

Future remedial activities addressed in the Record of Decision include perimeter air samplingduring remedial activities and a ground water monitoring program for at least 5 years after theremedial activities.

ATSDR will collaborate with appropriate federal, state, and local agencies to pursue theimplementation of additional recommendations outlined in this public health assessment.


Peter C. Sherertz, Ph.D.
Project Coordinator
Bureau of Toxic Substances, Virginia Department of Health

Connie K. Webb, M.P.H.
Toxic Substances Information Specialist
Bureau of Toxic Substances, Virginia Department of Health

Sanjay Thirunagari
Bureau of Toxic Substances, Virginia Department of Health

Gerald J. Grimes
Bureau of Toxic Substances, Virginia Department of Health

ATSDR Regional Representative

Charles J. Walters
Regional Representative
Office of the Assistant Administrator, ATSDR

ATSDR Technical Project Officer

Gail Godfrey
State Programs Section
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry


This C&R Battery Company, Inc. Public Health Assessment was prepared by the VirginiaDepartment of Health under a cooperative agreement with the Agency for Toxic Substances andDisease Registry (ATSDR). It is in accordance with approved methodology and proceduresexisting at the time the public health assessment was begun.

Gail Godfrey
Technical Project Officer
Remedial Programs Branch
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation (DHAC)

The Division of Health Assessment and Consultation, ATSDR, has reviewed this public healthassessment, and concurs with its findings.

Robert C. Williams, P.E., DEE
Director, DHAC, ATSDR


  1. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Antimony (Draft). October 1990. 128 pp.
  2. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Arsenic. March 1989. 125 pp.
  3. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Cadmium. March 1989. 107 pp.
  4. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Lead (Draft). October 1991. 275 pp.
  5. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Nickel. December 1988. 111 pp.
  6. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Zinc. December 1989. 121 pp.
  7. Callahan, M.A., Slimak, M.W., Gable, N.W., et al. Water-related Environmental Fate of 129 Priority Pollutants. Washington, D.C. EPA-440/4-79-029a. 1979.
  8. Carson, B.L., Ellis, H.V., and McCaan, J.L. Toxicology and Biological Monitoring of Metals in Humans. 1987. Lewis Publishers, Inc. Chelsea. 328 pp.
  9. Clement Associates, Inc. Chemical, Physical, and Biological Properties of Compounds Present at Hazardous Waste Sites. Prepared for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. September 1985.
  10. Goodman, L.S., Gilman, A.G., Rall, T.W., and Murad, F. The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. Seventh Edition. 1985. McMillan, New York. 1839 pp.
  11. Luoma, J. The Availability of Sediment Bound Cobalt, Silver and Zinc to a Deposit Feeding Clam. 1977. Energy Research and Development Administration symposium series, vol. 42. 682 pp.
  12. NUS. Final Remedial Investigation Report, C & R Battery Site, NUS Corporation, January 1990.
  13. Parmeggiani, L. Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety. Third Revised Edition. 1983. International Labour Office. Geneva. p. 423.
  14. Sittig, M. Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens. Second Edition. 1985. Noyes, New Jersey. 950 pp.
  15. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document: Lead. Environmental Protection Agency. 1984. p. C1-9.
  16. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Health Assessment for Lead. Office of Health and Environmental Assessment. August 1983.
  17. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Health Assessment for Inorganic Arsenic. Final Report. August 1983.
  18. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Health Effects Assessment for Lead. Office of Emergency and Remedial Response. September 1984.
  19. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Site Analysis, C & R Battery. November 1988.
  20. Wood. Biological Cycles for Toxic Elements in the Environment. Science. 1974. 188 pp.
  21. Woodward-Clyde. Treatability Study and Site Characterization, C & R Battery CompanySuperfund Site. September 1991.


Commonwealth of Virginia. Groundwater Standards (VR680-21-04.3) adopted pursuant toSection 62.1-44.15(3) of the Code of Virginia, 1950, as amended. 1989.

Draft Remedial Investigation Report, C & R Battery Site, NUS Corporation, March 1989.

EPA Air Quality Criteria for Lead. EPA. 1984.

EPA Information Sheet, C & R Battery Co., Inc., Chesterfield Co., Virginia, January 1990.

EPA "Water Quality Criteria Documents; Availability." 45 Federal Register 231, pp. 79318 etseq. November 1980.

Field Trip Report, C & R Battery Site, NUS Corporation, April 1988.

Final Feasibility Study, C & R Battery Site, NUS Corporation, January 1990.

Hazard Ranking System, C & R Battery Site, NUS Corporation, September 26, 1985.

Hearing of the U.S. EPA - Region III, Re: C & R Battery Co., Inc., Cook & Wiley, Inc.,February 2, 1990.

Letter, Chesterfield Co. Health Department, December 4, 1985.

Memorandum, Chesterfield Co. Health Department, July 7, 1986.

Memorandum, EPA, May 9, 1986.

National Library of Medicine Database: HSDB, Toxnet.

Preliminary Assessment of C & R Battery, NUS Corporation, December 31, 1984.

Preliminary Health Assessment, C & R Battery Co., Inc., ATSDR, July 19, 1988.

Record of Decision, C & R Battery Co., Inc., EPA, March 30, 1990.

Remedial Action Work Plan, C & R Battery Company, Inc. Superfund Site, Geraghty & Miller,June 12, 1992.

Site Inspection of C & R Battery, NUS, January 12, 1987.

Superfund Program Fact Sheet, Proposed Plan, C & R Battery Co., Inc. Site, Chesterfield Co.,January 1990.

U.S. EPA Database: Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS).

Work Plan, C & R Battery Site, Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study, NUS Corporation,July 1988.


Action level:
Concentration of a contaminant that indicates a need for remediation, treatment, or protection.
Ambient Water Quality Criteria:
Recommended maximum permissible pollutant concentrations consistent with the protection of aquatic organisms, human health, recreational activities, and other specified uses.
A permeable body of rock capable of yielding quantities of ground water to wells and springs.
The accumulation of a chemical by organisms of a single species from water directly or through consumption of food containing the chemical.
Efficient transfer of chemical from food to consumer, through two or more trophic levels, results in a systematic increase in tissue residue concentrations from one trophic level to another.
Class A human carcinogen:
EPA classification based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans and in animals.
Class B carcinogen:
EPA classification as probable human carcinogen.
Class B2 carcinogen:
EPA classification based on sufficient evidence in animals and inadequate data in humans.
Comparison Values:
j Existing guidelines or standards of exposure to specific contaminants. Examples of comparison values include EMEGs, RMEGs, MCLs, Drinking Water Health Advisories, and Ambient Water Quality Criteria.
The property of transmitting heat or electricity.
Mapped so as to show the general form or structure.
Cultivated with an implement (as a harrow or plow) that turns and loosens the soil with a series of disks.
Drinking Water Health Advisory:
The level of a contaminant in drinking water at which adverse noncarcinogenic health effects would not be anticipated with a margin of safety.
Formation of a bay or a conformation resembling a bay.
Environmental Media Evaluation Guides (EMEGs):
Media specific screening values used to select chemical contaminants of potential health concern at hazardous waste sites.
Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL):
Enforceable standards for public drinking water supplies under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Also referred to as drinking water standards.
National Priorities List (NPL):
EPA's list of top priority hazardous wastes sites that are eligible to receive Federal funds for investigation and cleanup under the Superfund program.
A term used to describe the hydrogen-ion activity of a system. A solution with a pH of 0 to 6.9 is acidic, a pH of 7 is neutral, and a pH of 7.1 to 14 is alkaline.
Pica child:
a child, generally ages 1-3 who exhibits a craving for nonfood items such as dirt. This behavior goes beyond the typical mouthing behavior of placing nonfood items such as toys or hands in the mouth.
Quality Assurance/Quality Control (QA/QC):
A system of procedures, checks, audits, and corrective actions used to ensure that field work and laboratory analyses during the investigation and cleanup of Superfund sites meet established standards.
Record of Decision (ROD):
A public document that explains which cleanup alternative(s) will be used at National Priorities List sites. The record of decision is based on information and technical analyses generated during the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study and involves the consideration of public comments and community concerns.
Reference Dose Media Evaluation Guides (RMEGs):
A contaminant concentration in a particular medium that is likely to be without appreciable risk of deleterious effects during a lifetime exposure. The RMEG is calculated from an EPA reference dose.
Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS):
Investigative and analytical studies usually performed at the same time in an interactive, iterative process, and together referred to as the "RI/FS." They are intended to gather the data necessary to determine the type and extent of contamination at a Superfund site; establish criteria for cleaning up the site; identify and screen cleanup alternatives for remedial action; and analyze, in detail, the technology and costs of the remedial alternatives.
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA):
EPA's comprehensive regulations for the management of hazardous waste.
A foundation or sustaining wall of stones or chunks of concrete thrown together without order to prevent erosion.
Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI):
EPA database containing information on the annual industry-estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment.
X-Ray Fluorescence:
Emission by a substances of its characteristic x-ray line spectrum uponexposure to x-rays.


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Figure 4.

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Contact CDC: 800-232-4636 / TTY: 888-232-6348

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