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8.0 References

Historical Document

This Web site is provided by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) ONLY as an historical reference for the public health community. It is no longer being maintained and the data it contains may no longer be current and/or accurate.

Barltrop, 1966. The Prevalence of Pica. Donald Barltrop. American Journal of Diseases and Childhood, 112:116-123. August, 1966.

Calabarese and Stanek, 1993. Soil-pica: Not a Rare Event. Edward J. Calabrese and Edward J. Stanek. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, A28(2):373-384. 1993.

Calabrese and Stanek, 1998. Soil Ingestion Estimation in Children and Adults: A Dominant Influence in Site-Specific Risk Assessment. Edward J. Calabrese and Edward J. Stanek III. Environmental Law Reporter, 28 ELR 10660-10671. November, 1998.

Calabrese et al., 1997. Soil Ingestion: A Concern for Acute Toxicity in Children. Edward J. Calabrese, Edward J. Stanek, Robert C. James, and Stephen M. Roberts. Environmental Health Perspectives, 105(12):1354-1358. December, 1997.

Danford, 1982. Pica and Nutrition. Darla Erhard Danford. Annual Review of Nutrition, 2:303-322. 1982.

Reid, 1992. Cultural and Medical Perspectives on Geophagia. Russell M. Reid. Medical Anthropology, 13:337-351. 1992.

Robischon, 1971. Pica Practice and Other Hand-Mouth Behavior and Children's Developmental Level. Paulette Robischon. Nursing Research, 20(1):4-16. January-February, 1971.

Shellshear et al., 1975. Environmental Lead Exposure in Christchurch Children: Soil Lead, a Potential Hazard. ID Shellshear, LD Jordan, DJ Hogan, and FT Shannon. New Zealand Medical Journal, 81:382-386. 1975.

Smullan, Motiwala, and Sigman, 1995. Pica in a Rural Obstetric Population. John C. Smullan, Shabbir Motiwala, and Robert K. Sigman. Southern Medical Journal, 88(12):1236-1240. December, 1995.

Stanek et al., 1998. Prevalence of Soil Mouthing/Ingestion among Healthy Children Aged 1 to 6. Edward J. Stanek III, Edward J. Calabrese, Kenneth Mundt, Penelope Pekow, and Karin B. Yeatts. Journal of Soil Contamination, 7(2):227-242. 1998.

Environmental Protection Agency, 1997. Exposure Factors Handbook. Chapter 4: Soil Ingestion and Pica. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Center for Environmental Assessment. EPA/600/P-95/002Fa. August, 1997.

Vermeer and Frate, 1979. Geophagia in rural Mississippi: environmental and cultural contexts and nutritional implications. Donald E. Vermeer and Dennis A. Frate. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 32:2129-2135. October, 1979.

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