Desencadenantes ambientales del asma
Esta página fue revisada el: 17 de octubre de 2007
Fuente del contenido: Agencia para Sustancias Tóxicas y el Registro de Enfermedades
|Referencias||(AAPCEH) American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Environmental Health. Etzel RA, editor. Pediatric environmental health. 2nd ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics; 2003.
[AAPCEH] American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Environmental Health. Environmental tobacco smoke: a hazard to children. Pediatrics 1997; 99:639–42.
[AAPCEH] American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Environmental Health. Ambient air pollution: respiratory hazards to children. Pediatrics 1993; 91:1210–3.
[AAP] American Academy of Pediatrics. Clinical practice guidelines of the AAP. A compendium of evidence-based research for pediatric practice. 2nd ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics; 1999.
[ATS] American Thoracic Society: Standardization of spirometry 1994 update. 1995. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 152:1107-1136.
Apelberg BJ, Aoki Y, Jaakkola JJ. 2001. Systematic review: exposure to pets and risk of asthma and asthma-like symptoms. J Allergy Clin Immunol 107(3):455–60.
Avol EL, Linn WS, Shamoo DA, Valencia LM, Anzar UT, Venet TG, et al. 1985. Respiratory effects of photochemical oxidant air pollution in exercising adolescents. Am Rev Respir Dis 132(3):619–22.
Ball TM, Castro-Rodriguez JA, Griffith KA, Holberg CJ, Martinez FD, Wright AL. 2000. Siblings, day-care attendance, and the risk of asthma and wheezing during childhood. N Engl J Med 343:538–43.
Balmes J, Becklake M, Blanc P et al. 2003. American Thoracic Society Statement: Occupational Contribution to the Burden of Airway Disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 167 : 787-797.
Bardana EJ Jr. 8. Occupational asthma and allergies. 2003. J Allergy Clin Immunol 111(2 Suppl):S530–9.
Bates CA, Silkoff PE. Exhaled nitric oxide in asthma: from bench to bedside. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2003;111(2):256–62.
Bernstein DI, Chan-Yeung M, Malo J-L, Bernstein IL, eds. 2006. Asthma in the Workplace and Related Conditions, 3rd Edition. New York: Taylor and Francis.
Brunekreef B, Janssen NA, deHartog J, Harssema H, Knape M, van Vliet P. 1997. Air pollution from truck traffic and lung function in children living near motorways. Epidemiology 8:298–303.
Burge HA. 1989. Airborne allergenic fungi. Classification, nomenclature, and distribution. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am 9:307–19.
Busse WW, Rosenwasser LJ. 2003. Mechanisms of asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 111(3 Suppl):799–804.
[CDC] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2000. Strategies for reducing exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, increasing tobacco-use cessation, and reducing initiation in communities and health-care systems. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 49(RR-12):1–11.
Christiani DC, Malo JL, Siracusa A. 2006. Upper Airways Involvement. In Asthma in the Workplace and Related Conditions, 3rd Edition. Edited by Bernstein DI, Chan-Yeung M, Malo J-L, Bernstein IL. New York: Taylor and Francis, pp 785-796.
Ciccone G, Forastiere F, Agabiti N, Biggeri A, Bisanti L, Chellini E, et al. 1998. Road traffic and adverse respiratory effects in children. SIDRIA Collaborative Group. Occup Environ Med 55(11):771–8.
Cox-Ganser JM, White SK, Jones R, Hilsbos K, Storey E, Enright PL, et al. 2005. Respiratory morbidity in office workers in a water-damaged building. Environ Health Perspect 113:485-490.
de Jongste JC, Shields MD. 2003. Cough · 2: Chronic cough in children. Thorax 58(11):998–1003.
Dell S, To T. 2001. Breastfeeding and asthma in young children: findings from a population-based study. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 155(11):1261–5.
DeNicola LR, Kissoon N, Duckworth LJ, Blake KV, Murphy SP, Silkoff PE. 2000. Exhaled nitric oxide as an indicator of severity of asthmatic inflammation. Pediatr Emerg Care 16(4):290–5.
Dey AN, Schiller JS, Tai DA. 2004. Summary health statistics for US children: National Health Interview Survey, 2002. Vital Health Stat 10 (221)1–78.
Dockery DW, Speizer FE, Stram DO, Ware JH, Spengler JD, Ferris BG Jr. 1989. Effects of inhalable particles on expiratory health of children. Am Rev Respir Dis 139:587–94.
Donaldson K, Gilmour MI, MacNee W. 2000. Asthma and PM10. Respir Res 1(1):12–5.
Duffy DL, Mitchell CA, Martin NG. 1998. Genetic and environmental risk factors for asthma: a cotwin-control study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 157(3 Pt 1):840–5.
Ehnert B, Lau-Schadendorf S, Weber A, Buettner P, Schou C, Wahn U. 1992.Reducing domestic exposure to dust mite allergen reduces bronchial hyperreactivity in sensitive children with asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 90:135–8.
Etzel RA. 2003. How environmental exposures influence the development and exacerbation of asthma. Pediatrics 112(1 Pt 2):233–9.
Fish JE. 2002. Occupational asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis induced by natural rubber latex exposure. J Allergy Clin Immunol 110(2 Suppl):S75–81.
Frew AJ. 2003a. Advances in environmental and occupational disorders. J Allergy Clin Immunol 111(3 Suppl):824–8.
Frew AJ. 2003b. Immunotherapy of allergic disease. J Allergy Clin Immunol 111(2 Suppl):712–9.Friedman-Jimenez G, Beckett WS, Szeinuk J, Petsonk EL. 2000.Clinical evaluation, management, and prevention of work-related asthma. Am J Ind Med 37:121–141.
Gautrin D, Bernstein IL, Brooks S, Henneberger PK. 2006. Reactive Airways Dysfunction Syndrome or Irritant-Induced Asthma. In Asthma in the Workplace and Related Conditions, 3rd Edition. Edited by Bernstein DI, Chan-Yeung M, Malo J-L, Bernstein IL. New York: Taylor and Francis pp 581-629.
Gern JE. 2004. Viral respiratory infection and the link to asthma. Pediatr Infect Dis J 23(1 Suppl):78–86.
Henneberger PK. 2007. Work-Exacerbated Asthma. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 8:146-151.
Holla AD, Roy SR, Liu AH. 2002. Endotoxin, atopy and asthma. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2(2):141–5.
[IOM] Institute of Medicine, Committee on the Assessment of Asthma and Indoor Air. 2000. Clearing the air: asthma and indoor air exposures. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
[IOM] Institute of Medicine of the National Academies. Damp Indoor Spaces and Health. The National Academies Press. Washington, DC. 2004.
Jaakkola JJ, Hwang BF, Jaakkola N. Home Dampness and Molds, Parental Atopy, and Asthma in Childhood: A Six-Year Population-Based Cohort Study. 2005. Environ Health Perspect. 113 (3): 357-361.
Jeebhay MF, Robins TG, Lehrer SB, Lopata AL. 2001. Occupational seafood allergy: a review. Occup Environ Med 58(9):553–62.
Johnson VJ, Matheson JM, Luster MI. 2004. Animal models for diisocyanate asthma: answers for lingering questions. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 4(2):105–10.
Jones AP. 2000. Asthma and the home environment. J Asthma 37:103–24.
Kilpatrick N, Frumkin H, Trowbridge J, Escoffery C, Geller R, Rubin I, et al. 2002. The environmental history in pediatric practice: a study of pediatricians’ attitudes, beliefs, and practices. Environ Health Perspect 110:823–7.
Koenig JQ, Covert DS, Hanley QS, van Belle G, Pierson WE. 1990. Prior exposure to ozone potentiates subsequent response to sulfur dioxide in adolescent asthmatic subjects. Am Rev Respir Dis 141(2):377–80.
Krieger J, Higgins DL. 2002. Housing and health: time again for public health action. Am J Public Health 92(5):758–68.
Krzyzanowski M, Quackenboss JJ, Lebowitz MD. 1990. Chronic respiratory effects of indoor formaldehyde exposure. Environ Res 52:117–25.
Landwehr LP, Boguniewicz M. 1996. Current perspectives on latex allergy. J Pediatr 128:305–12.
Larche M, Robinson DS, Kay AB. 2003. The role of T lymphocytes in the pathogenesis of asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 111(3):450–63.
Leikauf GD, Kline S, Albert RE, Baxter CS, Bernstein DI, Buncher CR. 1995. Evaluation of a possible association of urban air toxics and asthma. Environ Health Perspect 103(Suppl 6):253–71.
Lemanske RF Jr. 2003. Viruses and asthma: Inception, exacerbation, and possible prevention. J Pediatr 142(2 Suppl):3–7.
Lemiere C. 2004. The use of sputum eosinophils in the evaluation of occupational asthma. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 4(2):81–5.
Lim KG. 2002. Management of persistent symptoms in patients with asthma. Mayo Clin Proc 77(12):1333–8.
Lindren S, Belin L, Dreborg S, Einarsson R, Pahlman I. 1988. Breed-specific dog-dandruff allergens. J Allergy Clin Immunol 82:196–204.
Liu AH, Murphy JR. 2003. Hygiene hypothesis: fact or fiction? J Allergy Clin Immunol 111(3):471–8.
Liu AH. 2002. Endotoxin exposure in allergy and asthma: reconciling a paradox. J Allergy Clin Immunol 109(3):379–92.
Lodrup Carlsen KC. Carlsen KH. 2001. Effects of maternal and early tobacco exposure on the development of asthma and airway hyperreactivity. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 1(2):139–43.
Luft C, Hausding M, Finotto S. 2004. Regulation of T cells in asthma: implications for genetic manipulation. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 4(1):69–74.
Malo JL, Chan-Yeung M. 2006. Appendix: Agents causing occupational asthma with key references. In Asthma in the Workplace and Related Conditions, 3rd Edition. Edited by Bernstein DI, Chan-Yeung M, Malo J-L, Bernstein IL. New York: Taylor and Francis. pp 825-866.
Malo JL, Chan-Yeung M. 2001. Occupational asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 108(3):317–28.
Martinez FD, Cline M, Burrows B. 1992. Increased incidence of asthma in children of smoking mothers. Pediatrics 89:21–6.
Martinez FD. 2003. Respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis and the pathogenesis of childhood asthma. Pediatr Infec Dis J 22(2 Suppl):76–82.
McDonald E, Cook D, Newman T, Griffith L, Cox G, Guyatt G. 2002. Effect of air filtration systems on asthma: a systematic review of randomized trials. Chest 122(5):1535–42.
Murray AB, Ferguson AC. 1983. Dust-free bedrooms in the treatment of asthmatic children with house dust or house dust mite allergy: a controlled trial. Pediatrics 71:418–22.
Murray AB, Morrison BJ. 1993. The decrease in severity of asthma in children of parents who smoke since the parents have been exposing them to less cigarette smoke. J Allergy Clin Immunol 91:102–10.
Murray CS, Woodcock A, Custovic A. 2001. The role of indoor allergen exposure in the development of sensitization and asthma. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 1(5):407–12.
Nafstad P, Magnus P, Gaarder PI, Jaakkola JJ. 2001. Exposure to pets and atopy-related diseases in the first 4 years of life. Allergy 56:307–12.
[NHLBI] National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Global initiative for asthma: global strategy for asthma management and prevention. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, Available at www.ginasthma.com. [cited 2004 April 26].
[NHLBI] National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Global initiative for asthma: Global Burden of Asthma. Bethesday, MD: National Institutes of Health, Available at : www.ginasthma.com/ReportItem.asp?l1=2&l2=2∫Id=94 May 2004. [cited 2006 June 27].
[NHLBI] National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. 2003. National Asthma Education and Prevention, Update on Selected Topics 2002 Expert Panel Report: guidelines for the diagnosis and management of asthma. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health. No. 02-5074.
[NHLBI] National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. 1997. National Asthma Education and Prevention Expert Panel report 2: guidelines for the diagnosis and management of asthma. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health. No. 97-4051.
[NIOSH] National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Work-related lung disease surveillance report 2002. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2003-111, 2003, p191. Available at: www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2003-111/2003-111.html. [accessed 2007].
[NRDC] Natural Resources Defense Council. 2001. No breathing in the aisles: diesel exhaust inside school buses. San Francisco, CA: National Resources Defense Council.
Nelson HS. 2003. Advances in upper airway diseases and allergen immunotherapy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 111(3 Suppl):793–8.
Nelson HS. 2000. The importance of allergens in the development of asthma and the persistence of symptoms. J Allergy Clin Immunol 105(6 Pt 2):628–32.
O’Connor GT, Gold DR. 1999. Cockroach allergy and asthma in a 30-year-old man. Environ Health Perspect 107:243–7.
Ostro B, Lipsett M, Mann J, Braxton-Owens H, White M. 2001. Air pollution and exacerbation of asthma in African-American children in Los Angeles. Epidemiology 12:200–8.
Pirkle JL, Flegal KM, Bernert JT, Brady DJ, Etzel RA, Maurer KR. 1996. Exposure of the US population to environmental tobacco smoke: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1991. JAMA 275:1233–40.
Platts-Mills T, Vaughan J, Squillace S, Woodfolk J, Sporik R. 2001. Sensitization, asthma, and a modified Th2 response in children exposed to cat allergen: a population-based cross-sectional study. Lancet 357:752–6.
Platts-Mills TA, Sporik RB, Wheatly LM, Heymann PW. 1995. Is there a dose-response relationship between exposure to indoor allergens and symptoms of asthma? J Allergy Clin Immunol 96:435–40.
Platts-Mills TA, Vaughan JW, Carter MC, Woodfolk JA. 2001. The role of intervention in established allergy: avoidance of indoor allergens in the treatment of chronic allergic disease. J Allergy Clin Immunol 106:787–804.
Pope AM, Patterson R, Burge H, et al, editors. 1993. Indoor allergens: assessing and controlling adverse health effects. Institute of Medicine, Committee on the Health Effects of Indoor Allergens. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Rabatin JT, Cowl CT. 2001. A guide to the diagnosis and treatment of occupational asthma. Mayo Clin Proc 76(6):633–40.
Robinson DS, Larche M, Durham SR. 2004. Tregs and allergic disease. J Clin Invest 114(10):1389–97.
Rosenstreich DL, Eggleston P, Kattan M, Baker D, Slavin RG, Gergen P, et al. 1997. The role of cockroach allergy and exposure to cockroach allergen in causing morbidity among inner-city children with asthma. N Engl J Med 336:1356–63.
Salvi S. Pollution and allergic airways disease. 2001. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 1(1):35–41.
Sarlo K, Kirchner DB. 2002. Occupational asthma and allergy in the detergent industry: new developments. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2(2):97–101.
Schwab M, McDermott A, Spengler JD.1992. Using longitudinal data to understand children’s activity patterns in an exposure context: data from the Kanawha County Health Study. Environ Int 18:173–89.
Schwartz J, Neas LM. 2000. Fine particles are more strongly associated than coarse particles with acute respiratory health effects in school children. Epidemiology 11:6–10.
Shima M, Adachi M. 2000. Effect of outdoor and indoor nitrogen dioxide on respiratory symptoms in schoolchildren. Int J Epidemiol29:862–70.
Shusterman D. 1992. Critical review: the health significance of environmental odor pollution. Arch Environ Health 47(1):76–87.
Simpson A, Custovic A. 2004. Allergen avoidance in the primary prevention of asthma. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 4(1):45–51.
Song BJ, Liu AH. 2003. Metropolitan endotoxin exposure, allergy and asthma. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 3(5):331–5.
Spahn J, Covar R, Stempel DA. 2002. Asthma: addressing consistency in results from basic science, clinical trials, and observational experience. J Allergy Clin Immunol 109(5 Suppl):490–502.
Spektor DM, Thurston GD, Mao J, He D, Hayes C, Lippmann M. 1991. Effects of single- and multiday ozone exposures on respiratory function in active normal children. Environ Res 55:107–22.
Sporik R, Holgate ST, Platts-Mills TA, Cogswell JJ. 1990. Exposure to house-dust mite allergen (Der p I) and the development of asthma in childhood. A prospective study. N Engl J Med 323:502–7.
Tager IB, Hanrahan JP, Tosteson TD, Castile RG, Brown RW, Weiss ST, et al. 1993. Lung function, pre- and post-natal smoke exposure, and wheezing in the first year of life. Am Rev Respir Dis147(4):811–7.
Tarlo SM. 2003. Occupational asthma: a valid model for adult asthma? Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 3(2):91–4.
Taylor AN. 2001. Role of human leukocyte antigen phenotype and exposure in development of occupational asthma. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 1(2):157–61.
[NEETF] The National Environmental Education and Training Foundation. Environmental management of pediatric asthma guidelines. Available at: www.neefusa.org/health/asthma/asthmaguidelines.htm. [cited 2007].
Togias A. 2003. Rhinitis and asthma: evidence for respiratory system integration. J Allergy Clin Immunol 111(6):1171–83.
Tolbert PE, Mulholland JA, MacIntosh DL, Xu F, Daniels D, Devine OJ, et al. 2000. Air quality and pediatric emergency room visits for asthma in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. Am J Epidemiol 151(8):798–810.
Umetsu DT, Akbari O, Dekruyff RH. 2003. Regulatory T cells control the development of allergic disease and asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 112(3):480–7.
[US EPA] US Environmental Protection Agency. 1999. Guidelines for reporting of daily air quality: air quality index (AQI). Washington, DC: US Environmental Protection Agency. EPA-454/R-99-010.
[US EPA] US Environmental Protection Agency. Indoor air pollution: an introduction for health professionals. Washington, DC: US Environmental Protection. EPA 523-217/81322.
Von Essen S. 2001. The role of farm exposures in occupational asthma and allergy. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 1(2):151–6.
Wagner GR, Henneberger PK. 2006. Asthma Exacerbated at Work. In Asthma in the Workplace and Related Conditions, 3rd Edition. Edited by Bernstein DI, Chan-Yeung M, Malo J-L, Bernstein IL. New York: Taylor and Francis. pp 631-640.
Ware JH, Ferris BG Jr, Dockery DW, Spengler JD, Stram DO, Speizer FE. 1986. Effects of ambient sulfur oxides and suspended particles on respiratory health of preadolescent children. Am Rev Respir Dis 133:834–42.
Weinberger M. 2003. Clinical patterns and natural history of asthma. J Pediatr 142(2 Suppl):15–9.
Weitzman M, Gortmaker S, Walker DK, Sobol A. 1990. Maternal smoking and childhood asthma. Pediatrics85:505–11.
Williams SG, Schmidt DK, Redd SC, Storms W. 2003. Key clinical activities for quality asthma care. Recommendations of the National Asthma Education and Prevention Program. MMWR 52(RR-6):1–8.
Wisnewski AV, Redlich CA, Mapp CE, Bernstein DI. 2006. Polyisocyanates and their prepolymers. In Asthma in the Workplace and Related Conditions, 3rd Edition. Edited by Bernstein DI, Chan-Yeung M, Malo J-L, Bernstein IL. New York: Taylor and Francis. pp 481-504.
Wood RA, Eggleston PA. 1993. Management of allergy to animal danders. Pediatric Asthma, Allergy & Immunology 7:11,13–22.
Zeiss CR.2002. Advances in acid anhydride induced occupational asthma. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2(2):89–92.