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Appendix B: Bibliography for the Psychological Effects Program

Historical Document

This document is provided by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) ONLY as an historical reference for the public health community. It is no longer being maintained and the data it contains may no longer be current and/or accurate.

Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration. Crisis intervention programs for disaster victims in smaller communities. Washington (DC): National Institute of Mental Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 1981.

Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration. Field manual for human service workers in major disasters. Washington (DC): National Institute of Mental Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 1990.

Antelman SM, Kocan D, Knopf S, Edwards DJ, Caggiula AR. One brief exposure to a psychological stressor induces long-lasting, time-dependent sensitizations to both the cataleptic and neurochemical responses to haloperidol. Life Sci 1992;51:261-6.

Baker GW, Chapman DW, editors. Man and society in disaster. New York: Basic  Books, Inc. 1962.

Baum A. Stress, intrusive imagery, and chronic distress. Health Psychology 1990;9(6):653-75.

Baum, A. Toxins, technology, and natural disasters. In: Van den Bos GR, Bryant BK, editors. Cataclysms, crises, and catastrophes. Washington (DC): American Psychological Association: 1987. p. 5-54.

Baum A, Fleming I. Implications of psychological research on stress and technological accidents. Am Psychol 1993;48(6):665-72.

Baum A, Fleming I, Israel A, O'Keeffe MK. Symptoms of chronic stress following  a natural disaster and discovery of a human-made hazard. Environ Behav 1992 May;24(3):347-65.

Baum A, Fleming R, Davidson LM. Natural disaster and technological catastrophe. Environ Behav 1983 May;15(3):333-54.

Baum A, Fleming R, Singer J. Coping with victimization by technological disaster. J Soc Issues 1983;39(2):117-38.

Baum A, Gatchel RJ, Schaeffer MA. Emotional, behavioral, and physiologic effects of chronic stress at Three Mile Island. J Consult Clin Psychol 1983;54(4):565-72.

Baum A, Singer JE, Baum CS. Stress and the environment. J Soc Issues 1981;37(1):4-35.

Baxter RH. Some public attitudes about health and the environment. Environ Health Perspect 1990;86:261-9.

Beck U. From industrial society to risk society: questions of survival, social structure, and ecological enlightenment. Theory, Culture, and Society 1992; 9:97-123.

Bellett AJ. Value issues in biomedical science: public concerns and professional complacency. Immunol Cell Biol 1992;70:363-8.

Berman SH, Wandersman A. Fear of cancer and knowledge of cancer: a review and proposed relevance to hazardous waste sites. Soc Sci Med 1990;31:81-90.

Biondi M, Kotzalidis G. Human psychoneuroimmunology today. J Clin Lab Anal 1990;4:22-38.

Bowler RM, Mergler D, Huel G, Cone JE. Psychological, psychosocial, and psychophysiological sequelae in a community affected by a railroad chemical disaster. J Trauma Stress 1994;7(4):1-24.

Bowler RM, Mergler D, Huel G, Cone JE. Aftermath of a chemical spill: psychological and physiological sequelae. Neurotoxicology 1994;15.

Breslin, K. In our own backyards: the continuing threat of hazardous waste. Environ Health Perspect 1993 Nov;101(6):484-9.

Brodsky CM. Psychological factors contributing to somatoform diseases attributed to the workplace. J Occup Environ Med 1983 June;25(6):459-64.

Brody JG. New roles for psychologists in environmental impact assessment. American Psychologist 1985 Sept: 1057-60.

Bromet E, Dunn L. Mental health of mothers after the Three Mile Island accident. Urban Social Change Review 1981;14:12-5.

Bromet E, Schulberg HC, Dunn L. Reactions of psychiatric patients to the Three Mile Island nuclear accident. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1982 June;39:725-30.

Bromet EJ, Parkinson DK, Schulberg HC, Dunn LO,Gondek PC. Mental health of residents near the Three Mile Island reactor: a comparative study of selected groups. J Prevent Psychiatry 1982;1(3):225-76.

Brown P. Popular epidemiology: community response to toxic waste-induced disease in Woburn, Massachusetts. Science, Technology, and Human Values 1987;12(3-4):78-85.

Chaikin AL, Darley JM. Victim or perpetrator?: defensive attribution of responsibility and the need for order and justice. J Pers Soc Psych 1973;25(2):268-75.

Chamberlain BC. Mayo seminars in psychiatry: The psychological aftermath of disaster. J Clin Psychiatry 1980 July;41(7):238-44.

Chaney DS, Deutch AY, Krystal JH, Southwick SM, Davis M. Psychobiologic mechanisms of posttraumatic stress disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1993 April;(50):294-305.

Clancy J, McVicar A. Subjectivity of stress. Br J Nurs 1993;2(8):410-7.

Collins DL, Baum A, Singer JE. Coping with chronic stress at Three Mile Island: psychological and biochemical evidence. Health Psychol 1983;2(2):149-66.

Couch SR, Kroll-Smith JS. Patterns of victimization and  the chronic technological disaster. In: Viano EC, editor. The victimology handbook. New York: Garland Publishers; 1991.

Couch SR, Kroll-Smith JS, editors. Communities at risk: collective responses  to technological hazards. New York: Peter Lang; 1991.

Creen T. The social and psychological impact of NIMBY disputes. In: Armour S, editor. The not-in-my-backyard syndrome. Downsview, Ontario: York University; 1984. p. 51-60.

Curtis SA. Cultural relativism and risk-assessment strategies for federal projects. Human Organization 1992; 51:6570.

Cutter S, Barnes K. Evacuation behavior and Three Mile Island. Disasters 1982;6(2):116-24.

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Davidson A. The native villages. In: Davidson A, editor. In the wake of the Exxon Valdez. The devastating impact of the Alaska oil spill. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books; 1990.

Davidson L, Baum A, Collins D. Stress and control-related problems at Three Mile Island. J Appl Soc Psych 1982;12:349-59.

Davidson LM, Fleming I, Baum A. Post-traumatic stress as a function of chronic stress and toxic exposure. In: Figley C, editor. Trauma and its wake, Vol 2: traumatic stress theory, research and intervention. New York:Brunner/Mazel; 1986. p.57-77.

Davidson LM, Fleming R, Baum A. Chronic stress, catecholamines, and sleep disturbance at Three Mile Island. J Hum Stress 1987 Summer;75-83.

Dayal HH, Baranowski T, Yi-hwei L, Morris R. Hazardous chemicals: psychological dimensions of the health sequelae of a community exposure in Texas. J Epidemiol Community Health 1994;48:560-8.

Deloria V. Custer died for your sins; an Indian manifesto. Macmillan: New York; 1969.

Dew MA, Bromet EJ. Predictors of temporal patterns of distress during 10 years following the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island. Social Psychiatry & Psychiatric Epidemiology 1993 Apr;28(2):49-55.

Dew MA, Bromet EJ, Schulberg HC, Dunn LO, Parkinson DK. Mental health effects of the Three Mile Island nuclear reactor restart. Am J Psychiatry 1987 Aug;144(8):1074-7.

Dinges NG, Joos SK. Stress coping and health: models of  interaction for Indian and Native populations. In: Manson SM, Dinges NG, editors. Behavioral health issues among American Indians and Alaska Natives: explorations on the frontiers of biobehavioral sciences. American Indian and Alaska Native mental health research. Vol 1, monograph 1. Denver: National Center for American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center; 1988. p. 8-64.

Dohrenwend B, Dohrenwend BS, Warhett GJ, Bartlett GS, Goldsteen RL, Goldsteen K, et al. Stress in the community: a report to the president's commission on the accident at Three Mile Island. In: Moss TH, Sills DL (editors). The Three Mile Island nuclear accident. New York Academy of Sciences; 1984. p. 159-74.

Dohrenwend BP. Psychological implications of nuclear accidents: the case of Three Mile Island. Bull N Y Acad Med 1983 Dec;59(10):1060-76.

Dumont, M. Psychotoxicology: the return of the Mad Hatter. Soc Sci Med 1989;29(9):1077-82.

Earls F, Smith E, Reich W, Jung KG. Investigating psychopathological consequences of a disaster in children: a pilot study incorporating a structured diagnostic interview. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1988;27(1):90-5.

Edelstein, MR. Contaminated communities: the social and psychological impact of residential toxic exposure. Boulder (CO): Westview Press; 1988.

Edelstein MR, Wandersman A. Community dynamics in coping with toxic contaminants. In: Atman I, Wandersman A, editors. Neighborhood and community environments. New York: Plenum Press; 1987. p. 69-112.

Ellis P, Greenberg S, Murphy BC, Reusser JW. Environmentally contaminated families: therapeutic considerations. Am J Orthopsychiatry 1992 Jan;62(1): 44-54.

Emmett EA. Toxic responses of the skin. In: Klaassen CD, Amdur MO, Doull J, editors. Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: MacMillan;1986.

Engel GL. The need for a new medical model: a challenge for biomedicine. Science 1977 Apr 8;196 (4286):129-36.

Erikson KT. Loss of communality at Buffalo Creek. Am J Psychiatry 1976;133(3):302-5.

Esser AH. Environment and mental health. Science, Medicine & Man 1974;1:181-193.

Fleming R, Baum A, Giesriel MM, Gatchel RJ. Mediating influences of social support on stress at Three Mile Island. J Hum Stress 1982 Sept;8:14-22.  Flynn CB, Chalmers JA. The social and economic effects of the accident at Three Mile Island. Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 1980 Jan; NUREG/CR/1215.

Foulks E, McLellen T. Psychologic sequelae of chronic toxic waste exposure. South Med J 1992 Feb;85(2):122-6.

Fowlkes MR, Miller P. Love Canal: the social construction of disaster. Federal Emergency Management Agency, January 1983.

Freudenberg N. Citizen action for environmental health: report on a survey of community organizations. Am J Public Health 1984 May;74(5):444-8.

Fried M. Grieving for a lost home. In: Duhl LJ, editor. The urban condition.  New York: Basic Books, 1963, p. 151-71.

Fullerton CS, Ursano RJ. Behavioral and psychological responses to chemical and biological warfare. Mil Med 1990 Feb;155:54-9.

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Gatchel RJ, Newberry B. Psychophysiological effects of toxic chemical contamination exposure: a community field study. J Appl Soc Psych 1991;21(24):1961-76.

Gatchel RJ, Schaeffer MA, Baum A. A psychophysiologic field study of stress at Three Mile Island. Psychophysiology 1985;22(2):175-81.

Gibbs L. Division 27 invited address by distinguished citizen: Lois Gibbs. Am J Community Psychol 1983;11(2):115-24.

Gibbs M. Psychological dysfunction as a consequence of exposure to toxins. In: Lebovits A, Baum A, Singer J, editors. Exposure to hazardous substances. Hillsdale (NJ): Lawrence Eribaum Associates; 1986. p. 47-70.

Gibbs M. Psychopathology in victims of toxic exposure. In: The proceedings of the Fourth National Environmental Health Conference, Environmental issues: today's challenge for the future, 1989 June 20-23; San Antonio, Texas. p. 25764.

Gibbs M, Belford S. Toxic threat, coping style, and symptoms of emotional distress. Toxicollegian 1993;(2)1:1-4.

Ginzburg HM, Reis E. Consequence of the nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl. Public Health Rep 1991 Jan-Feb;106(1):32-40.

Gendinning, C. When technology wounds, the human consequences of progress. New York: William Morrow; 1990.

Gleser G, Green B, Winget C. Quantifying interview data on psychic impairment of disaster survivors. J Nerv Ment Dis 1978;166:209-16. 

Goldsteen R, Schorr JK, Goldsteen KS. Longitudinal study of appraisal at Three Mile Island: implications for life event research. Soc Sci Med 1989;28(4):389-98.

Green BL, Lindy JD, Grace MC, Gleser GC, Leonard AC, Korol M, et al. Buffalo Creek survivors in the second decade: stability of stress symptoms. Am J Orthopsychiatry 1990 Jan;60(1):43- 54.

Green BL, Solomon SD. The mental health impact of natural and technological disasters. In: Freedy JR, Hobfoll SE, editors. Traumatic stress: from theory to practice. Plenum series on stress and coping. New York: Plenum Press; 1995.

Greenberg M. Local health officer's views on hazardous waste remediation. Am J Public Health 1993 May;83(5):7524.

Greenberg M, Schneider D. Hazardous waste site remediation, neighborhood change, and neighborhood quality. Environ Health Perspect 1994 June-July;102(6-7): 542-7.

Greenberg MR, Anderson RF, Rosenberger K. Social and economic effects of hazardous waste management sites. Hazardous Waste 1984;1(3):387-96.

Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry Committee on the Family. The challenge of relational diagnoses: applying the biopsychosoical model in DSM-IV. Am J Psychiatry 1989 Nov;146(11):1492-93.

Hall NR, Goldstein AL. Neurotransmitters and the immune system. Psychoneuroimmunology, 1981:521-43.

Hanninen H. Twenty-five years of behavioral toxicology within occupational medicine: a personal account. Am J Ind Med 1985;7:19-30.

Harding AK, Greer ML. The health impact of hazardous waste sites on minority communities: implications for public health and environmental health professionals. J Environ Health 1993 May;55(9):6-9.

Hartsough DM, Savitsky JC. Three Mile Island: psychology and environmental policy at a crossroads. Am Psychol 1984 Oct;39(10):1113-22.

Hatch MC, Wallenstein S, Beyea J, Nieves JW, Susser M. Cancer rates after the Three Mile Island nuclear accident and proximity of residence to the plant. Am J Public Health 1991 June;81(6):719-24.

Hatcher SL. The psychological experience of nursing mothers upon learning of a toxic substance in their breast milk. Psychiatry 1982 May;45:172-81.

Hocking F. Human reactions to extreme environmental stress. Med J Aust 1975;2(12):477-83.

Hornsby JL, Sappington JT, Mongan P, Gullen WH, Bono SF, Altekruse E. Risk for bladder cancer: psychological impact of notification. JAMA 1985;253(13):1899-902.

Horowitz J, Stefanko M. Toxic waste: behavioral effects of an environmental stressor. Behav Med 1989 Spring;15:23-8.

Horowitz MJ. Stress-response syndromes: a review of posttraumatic stress and adjustment disorders. In: Wilson JP, Raphael B, editors. International handbook of traumatic stress syndromes. New York: Plenum Press; 1991.

Impact Assessment, Inc. Social and psychological impacts of the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Third interim report for the oiled mayors study of the economic, social, and psychological impacts of the Exxon Valdez oil spill. August 13, 1990.

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Kapoor R. The psychological consequences of environmental disaster: selected case studies of the Bhopal gas tragedy. Population and Environment: A Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies 1992 Spring;13(3):209-15.

Kaprow ML. Manufacturing danger: fear and pollution in industrial society. American Anthropologist 1985;87:342-56.

Kinston W, Rosser R. Disaster: effects on mental and physical state. J Psychosom Res 1974;18:437-56.

Koren G, Bologa M, Pastuszak A. Women's perception of teratogenic risk. Can J Public Health 1991 May/June;82:S11-S37.

Korgeski GP, Leon GR. Correlates of self-reported and objectively determined exposure to Agent Orange. Am J Psychiatry 1983 Nov;140(11):1443-9.

Kroll-Smith JS, Couch SR. What is a disaster? An ecological-symbolic approach to resolving the definitional debate. Int J Mass Emergencies and Disasters 1991 Nov;9(3):355-66.

Kroll-Smith S. As if exposure to toxins were not enough: the social and cultural system as a secondary stressor. Environ Health Perspect 1991;95:61-6.

Kroll-Smith S. Some observations on natural disasters, toxic contamination, and stress. Environmental Health Network Newsletter 1991 Apr;(5):1-4.

Kroll-Smith S, Couch SR. Technological hazards: social responses as traumatic stressors. In: Wilson JP, Raphael B, editors. International handbook of traumatic stress syndromes. New York: Plenum Press; 1993.

Kroll-Smith S, Couch SR. The real disaster is above ground, a mine fire and social conflict. Lexington (KY): University Press of Kentucky; 1990.

Krystal H, Niederland WC. Psychic traumatization aftereffects in individuals and communities. International Psychiatry Clinics, Vol 8, Boston: Little Brown; 1971. p. 21729.

Lazarus RS. From psychological stress to the emotions: a history of changing outlooks. Annu Rev Psychol 1993;44:124.

Lebovits AH, Baum A, Singer JE, editors. Advances in environmental psychology. Vol 6. Hazardous substances: psychological parameters. Hillsdale (NJ): Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 1986.

Levenstein S, Prantera C, Varco V, Scribano ML, Berto E, Luzi C. Development of the perceived stress questionnaire: a new tool for psychosomatic research. J Psychosom Res 1993 Jan;37(1):19-32.

Levine A. Psychosocial impact of toxic chemical waste dumps. Environ Health Perspect 1983;48:15-7.

Levine AG. Love Canal: science, politics, and people. Lexington (MA): D.C. Heath;1982.

Lifton R, Olson E. The human meaning of total disaster, the Buffalo Creek experience. Psychiatry 1976 Feb;39(1):1-18.

Lifton RJ. Beyond psychic numbing: a call to awareness. Am J Orthopsychiatry 1982 Oct;52(4):619-29.

Lifton RJ. From Hiroshima to the Nazi doctors. The evolution of psychoformative approaches to understanding traumatic stress syndromes. In: Wilson JP, Raphael B, editors. International handbook of traumatic stress syndromes. New York: Plenum Press; 1991.

Logue JN, Hansen H, Struening E. Some indications of the long-term health effects of a natural disaster. Public Health Rep 1981 Jan/Feb;96(1):67-79.

Lopez-Ibor J, Soria J, Canas F, Rodriquez-Gamazo M. Psychopathological aspects of the toxic oil syndrome catastrophe. Br J Psychiatry 1985;147:352-65.

Luchterhand EG. Sociological approaches to massive stress in natural and man-made disasters. In: Krystal H, Niederland WC, editors. Psychic traumatization: aftereffects in individuals and communities. International Psychiatry Clinics. Boston: Little, Brown; 1971. p. 217-29.

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Maj M, Veltro F, Pirozzi R, Lobrace S, Magliano L. Pattern of recurrence of illness after recovery from an episode of major depression: a prospective study. Am J Psychiatry 1992 June;149(6):795-800.

Marshall E. Fear as a form of pollution. Science 1982 January;215:481.

Masterson-Allen S, Bown P. Publicreaction to toxic waste contamination:analysis of a social movement. Int J Health Serv 1990;20(3):485-500.

McDaniel JS. Psychoimmunology: implications for future research. South Med J 1992 April;85(4):388-402.

McElroy A, Townsend PK. Medical anthropology in ecological perspective. 2nd ed. Boulder (CO): Westview Press; 1989.

McFarlane AC. Posttraumatic morbidity of a disaster: a study of cases presenting for psychiatric treatment. J Nerv Ment Dis 1986;174(1):4-14.

McKinnon W, Weisse CS, Reynolds CP, Bowles CA, Baum A. Chronic stress, leukocyte subpopulations, and humoral response to latent viruses. Health Psychol 1989;8(4):389-402.

Melief W. The social impacts of alternative policy approaches to incidents of toxic waste exposure. In: Becker H, Porter A, editors. Impact assessment today, Vol 11. Utrecht, The Netherlands: Jan van Arkel; 1986. p. 825-34.

Mitchell JV. Perception of risk and credibility at toxic sites. Risk Anal 1992;12(1):19-26.

Mollica, RF. Mood disorders: epidemiology. In: Kaplan HI, Sadock BJ, editors. Comprehensive textbook of psychiatry. Vol 1, 5th ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 1989. p. 862.

Murphy BC, Ellis P, Greenberg S. Atomic veterans and their families: responses to radiation exposure. Am J Orthopsychiatry 1990 July;60(3):418-27.

Murthy RS. Bhopal. Indian J Mental Health 19(2):30-5.

Murthy RS, Isaac MK. Mental health needs of Bhopal disaster victims and training of medical officers in mental health aspects. Indian J Med Res 1987;86(Suppl):51-8.

Myers DG. Mental health and disaster: preventive approaches to intervention. In: Gist R, Lubin B, editors. Psychosocial aspects of disaster. New York: John Wiley & Sons; 1989. p. 190-228.

Neutra, R. Epidemiology for and with a distrustful community. Environ Health Perspect 1985;62:393-7.

Newman CJ. Children of disaster: clinical observations at Buffalo Creek. Am J Psychiatry 1976 March;133(3):306-12.

Ornitz EM, Pynoos RS. Startle modulation in children with posttraumatic stress disorder. Am J Psychiatry 1989 July;146(7):866-70.

Ozonoff D, Boden LI. Truth and consequences: health agency responses to environmental health problems. Science, Technology, & Human Values 1987 Summer/Fall;12(3-4):70-7.

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Palinkas LA, Petterson JS, Russell J, Downs MA. Community patterns of psychiatric disorders after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Am J Psychiatry 1993;150:1517-23.

Palinkas LA, Russell J, Downs MA, Petterson JS. Ethnic differences in stress, coping, and depressive symptoms after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. J Nerv Ment Dis

Parker G. Psychological disturbance in Darwin evacuees following Cyclone Tracy. Med J Aust 1975;1:650-2.

Perrow C. Normal accidents: living with high risk technologies. New York: Basic Books; 1984.

Preston V, Taylor SM, Hodge DC. Environ Behav1983;15(2):143-64.

Psychological Impacts in Contaminated Communities. Proceedings of the Workshop. State of New York Department of Health and Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry. 1992 June 8-9; New York.

Rangell L. Discussion of the Buffalo Creek disaster: the course of psychic trauma. Am J Psychiatry 1976;133(3):313-6.

Realmuto GM, Wagner N, Bartholow J. The Williams pipeline disaster: a controlled study of a technological accident. J Trauma Stress 1991;4(4):469-79.

Reko K. The psychosocial impact of  environmental disasters. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 1984;33:655-61.

Rich V. USSR: Chernobyl's psychological legacy. Lancet 1991;337:1086.

Robertson JS. Chemical disasters, real and suspected. Public Health 1993;107:277-86.

Rubonis AV, Bickman L. A test of the consensus and distinctiveness attribution principles in victims of disaster. J Appl Social Psychol 1991 May;21(10):791-809.

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Sapolsky RM. Individual differences and the stress response. Neuroscience 1994;6:261-69.

Schaeffer MA, Baum A. Adrenal cortical response to stress at Three Mile Island. Psychosom Med 1984 May/June;46(3):227-37.

Schechter MT, Spitzer WO, Hutcheon ME, Dales RE, Eastridge LM, Steinmetz N, et al. Cancer downwind from sour gas refineries: the perception and the reality of an epidemic. Environ Health Perspect 1989;79:283-90.

Schmidt, C. ATSDR's health assessment process: the psychosocial component of community health concerns. Presented at the Association of Minority Health Professions Schools Conference held in Atlanta, Georgia, November 13, 1990.

Schottenfeld RS. Psychologic sequelae of chemical and hazardous materials exposure. In: Sullivan JB, Krieger GR, editors. Hazardous materials toxicology, clinical principles of environmental health. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins; 1992.

Schottenfeld RS. Workers with multiple chemical sensitivities: a psychiatric approach to diagnosis and treatment. Occup Med 1993;2(4):739-53.

Schwartz BS, Ford P, Bolla KI, Agnew J, Bleecker ML. Solvent-associated olfactory dysfunction: not a predictor of deficits in learning and memory. Am J Psychiatry 1991 June;148(6):751-6.

Schwartz SP, White PE, Hughes RG. Environmental threats, communities, and hysteria. J Public Health Policy 1985;6:58-77.

Selden, B. Adolescent epidemic hysteria presenting as a mass casualty, toxic exposure incident. Annals of Emergency Medicine 1989;18(8):149-52.

Sethi BB, Sharma M, Trivedi JK, Singh H. Psychiatric morbidity in patients attending clinics in gas affected areas in Bhopal. Indian J Med Res 1987;86(Suppl):45-50.

Setterberg F, Shavelson L. Toxic nation, the fight to save our communities from chemical contamination. New York: John Wiley & Sons; 1993.

Shore JH, editor. Disaster stress studies: new methods and findings. Washington (DC): American Psychiatric Press; 1992. p. 142-9.

Shore JH, Tatum EL, Vollmer WM. Psychiatric reactions to disaster: the Mount St. Helens experience. Am J Psychiatry 1986;143:590-5.

Shusterman D, Lipscomb J, Neutra R, Satin K. Symptom prevalence and odor-worry interaction near hazardous waste sites. Environ Health Perspect 1991;94:25-30.

Silverman JJ, Hart RP, Garrettson LK, Stockman SJ, Hamer RM, Schulz SC et al. Posttraumatic stress disorder from pentaborane intoxication. JAMA 1985;254(18):2603-8.

Slovic P, Fischoff B, Lichtenstein S. Behavioral decision theory perspectives on risk and safety. Acta Psychologica 1984;56:183-203.

Smith EM, North CS, McColl RE, Shea JM. Acute postdisaster psychiatric disorders: identification of persons at risk. Am J Psychiatry 1990;147(2):202-6.

Smith ES, North CS. Posttraumatic stress disorder in natural disasters and technological accidents. In: Wilson JP, Raphel B, editors. New York: Plenum Press; 1991.

Soine L. Expanding the environment in social work: the case for including environmental hazards content. J Soc Work Educ 1987 Spring/Summer;2:40-6.

Solomon SD, Bravo M, Rubio-Stipec M, Canino G. Effect of family role on response to disaster. J Traumat Stress 1993;6(2):255-69.

Sorg BA, Hooks MS, Kalivas PW. Neuroanatomy and neurochemical mechanisms in time-dependent sensitization. Toxicol Ind Health 1994;10(4/5):369-86.

Spitzer RL, First MB, Williams J, Kendler K, Pincus HA, Tucker G. Now is the time to retire the term "organic mental disorders." Am J Psychiatry 1992;149(2):240-4.

Steele EJ, Bellett AJD, McCullagh PJ, Selinger B. Reappraisal of the findings on Agent Orange by the Australian Royal Commission. Toxicol Lett 1990;51:261-8.

Stone RA, Levine AG. Reactions to collective stress: correlates of active citizen participation at Love Canal. In: Wandersman A, Hess R, editors. Beyond  the individual: environmental approaches and prevention. New York: Haworth Press; 1985.

Tarr JA. Risk perception in waste disposal: a historical review. In: Andelman JB, Underhill DW, editors. Health effects from hazardous waste sites. USA: Lewis Publishers; 1987.

Taylor SM, Elliott S, Eyles J, Frank J, Haight M, Streiner D, et al. Psychosocial impacts in populations exposed to solid waste facilities. 4th International Symposium in Medical Geography: A Broadening of Horizons (Norwich, England) 1990.

Tierney KJ, Baisden B. Crisis intervention program for disaster victims: a source book and manual for smaller communities. Bethesda (MD): National Institute of Mental Health, Division of Special Mental Health Programs 1990. Report no. (ADM)90-675. Bachrach K, Zautra A. Coping with a community stressor: the threat of a hazardous waste facility. J Health Soc Behav 1985;26:127-41.

Titchener JL, Kapp FT. Family and character change at Buffalo Creek. Am J Psychiatry 1976;133(3):295-9.

Unger DG, Wandersman A, Hallman W. Living near a hazardous waste facility: coping with individual and family distress. Am J Orthopsychiatry 1992 Jan;62(1): 55-70.

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Van der Kolk BA. The body keeps the score: memory and the evolving psychobiology of posttraumatic stress. Harv Rev Psychiatry 1994 Jan/Feb;1(5): 253-65.

Via MF, Workman EA. Psychoneuroimmunology: yesterday, today, and tomorrow. Acta Neurologica August 1991;13(4):335-342.

Von Schirnding YE, Ehrlich RI. Environmental health risks of toxic waste site exposures- an epidemiological perspective. S Afr Med J 1992 June;81(11):546-9.

Vyner HM. Invisible trauma: psychosocial effects of invisible environmental contaminants. Lexington (MA): D.C. Heath; 1988.

Vyner HM. The psychological dimensions of health care for patients exposed to radiation and the other invisible contaminants. Soc Sci Med 1988;27(10): 1097-103.

Wandersman A, Hallman W, Berman S. How residents cope with living near a hazardous waste landfill: an example of substantive theorizing. Am J Community Psychol 1989;17(5):575-83.

Wedeen RP, Sheehan HE. Environmental hazards and public health: lessons for the practice of medicine and for public policy. M Sinai J Med 1992 Jan;59(1):23-7.

Weese, CB. The relationship of "dread" to the prevalence of symptoms in Persian Gulf soldiers: a hypothesis. US Army Environmental Hygiene Agency, APG MD 21010, 1994.

Weiss B. Intersection of psychiatry and toxicology. Int J Mental Health 14(3):7-25.

Weisz JR, Rothbaum FM, Blackburn TC. Standing out and standing in: the psychology of control in American and Japan. Am Psychol 1984;39:955-69.

Westermeyer J. Research of stigmatized conditions: dilemmas for the sociocultural psychiatrist. Am Indian Alsk Native Ment Health Res 1989 Spring;2(3):41-5.

Willms DG, Lange P, Bayfield D, Beardy M, Lindsay EA, Cole DC, et al. A lament by women for "The People, The Land" [Nishnawbi-Aski Nation]: an experience of loss. Can J Public Health 1992 Sept/Oct;83(5):331-4.

Woolf AD. Ginger Jake and the blues: a tragic song of poisoning. Vet Hum Toxicol 1995;37(3):252-4.

World Health Organization. Psychosocial consequences of disasters: prevention and management. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1992.

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  4. D
  5. E
  6. F
  7. G
  8. H
  9. I
  10. J
  11. K
  12. L
  13. M
  14. N
  15. O
  16. P
  17. Q
  18. R
  19. S
  20. T
  21. U
  22. V
  23. W
  24. X
  25. Y
  26. Z
  27. #