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VII. Appendices


Table 1 - Major Lead Exposure Pathways at the Tar Creek Superfund Site

Pathway Name Environmental Media and Transport Mechanisms Point Of Exposure Route Of Exposure Exposure Population Time Notes Complete Exposure Pathway?
Residential area soil Lead present in soil as a result of use of tailings as fill or airborne transport of tailings from piles or ponds Surface soil outside and house dust inside homes in Tar Creek area with soil leads above 500 mg/kg Incidental ingestion, inhalation Residents (particularly children 6 and younger) Past, Present, Future Elevated soil lead concentrations and BLLs identified in children in Tar Creek Area prior to the clean up of residential soil by EPA. Exposure continues to occur at any home yet to be remediated. Yes
Mine tailings Lead present in mine tailings deposited in tailings piles, ponds, or embankments Walking or playing on the tailings piles, ponds, or embankments Incidental ingestion, inhalation Residents (particularly children 6 and younger) Past, Present, Future Many homes in the Picher and Cardin area are within 250 feet of tailings deposits. Yes
Lead-based paint (LBP) Not site-related Lead present in house dust, soil, and paint chips due to the use of LBP House dust, soil, and paint chips in or around homes with deteriorating LBP Incidental ingestion Residents (particularly children 6 and younger) Past, Present, Future Available data indicate that 30% to 40% of the homes in the Tar Creek area are likely to have LBP. Yes

Table 2 - Other Lead Exposure Pathways at the Tar Creek Superfund Site

Pathway Name Environmental Media and Transport Mechanisms Point Of Exposure Route Of Exposure Exposure Population Time Notes Complete Exposure Pathway?
Ingestion of homegrown produce Uptake of lead from soil by fruits and vegetables grown in residential gardens Produce consumption Ingestion Residents Past, Present, Future EPA sampling identified low levels of lead in homegrown produce. Yes
Drinking water
Not site-related
Movement of lead from lead pipes or solder into water Municipal drinking water Ingestion Water supply users Past, Present, Future EPA sampling identified lead in the tap water of 13 of 100 homes. Yes
Airborne dust Airborne transport of mine tailings from piles, ponds, and embankments in the Tar Creek Site Area Residential areas near tailings piles, ponds, and embankments Inhalation Individuals living near tailings piles, ponds, and embankments Past, Present, Future EPA sampling identified low levels of lead in the air. Yes
Biota (wild animals & plants) Uptake or ingestion of lead which had come from mine tailings in the environment Consumption of animals and plants contaminated with lead from the site Ingestion Anyone who eats animals & plants from site area Past, Present, Future Members of the 9 tribes in Ottawa County may be at the greatest risk of exposure to contaminants in this pathway. Unknown

Table 3 - Demographics in Tar Creek Superfund Site Area*

CHARACTERISTIC PICHER/CARDIN AREA TAR CREEK SITE AREA UNITED STATES
Percent of People in Poverty 26 19 12.4
Percent of Homes Built Prior to 1950 39 32 22.3
*2000 Census Data

Table 4 - Characteristics of Blood Lead Testing Data Among Children Aged 1-5 Years Living within the Tar Creek Superfund Site*

All Tar Creek Superfund Site (also includes portion of North Miami that is outside the boundaries of Superfund site)
  1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
(Jan, Feb only)
Oklahoma Child Lead Poisoning Prevention Program
Total Elevated (=10 µg/dL) (%) 20 (19.4) 67 (31.2) 50 (22.5) 14 (19.2) 9 (9.09) 25 (6.9) 16 (6.4) 11 (4.5)    
Geometric BLL Mean 4.80 6.65 6.00 5.36 4.93 3.81 3.32 3.05    
% Child Tested/Pop (actual number tested) 16 (103) 34 (215) 36 (222) 12 (73) 16 (99) 58 (361) 40 (249) 39 (242)    
Sampling Design Con-
venience
Con-
venience
Con-
venience
Con-
venience
Con-
venience
Con-
venience
Con-
venience
Con-
venience
   
TEAL Surveys (Personal Conversation, Malcoe 2004)
Total Elevated (=10 µg/dL) (%)     26 (18.2)     14 (8.6)        
Geometric BLL Mean     5.77     4.25        
% Child Tested/Pop (actual number tested)     23 (143)     26 (162)        
Sampling Design     Door-to-door     Door-to-door        
* n=625 (estimate based on 2000 Census)

Table 5 - Characteristics of Blood Lead Testing Data Among Children Aged 1-5 Years Living within the Tar Creek Superfund Site*

Picher and Cardin only
  1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
(Jan, Feb only)
Oklahoma Child Lead Poisoning Prevention Program
Total Elevated (=10 µg/dL) (%) 17 (31.5) 41 (44.6) 34 (33.7) 5 (29.4) 3 (9.1) 17 (13.2) 7 (12.1) 3 (7.0)    
Geometric BLL Mean 6.13 9.17 7.66 6.63 5.24 4.30 4.42 4.24    
% Child Tested/Pop (actual number tested) 36 (54) 61 (92) 67 (101) 11 (17) 22 (33) 86 (129) 39 (58) 29 (43)    
Sampling Design Con-
venience
Con-
venience
Con-
venience
Con-
venience
Con-
venience
Con-
venience
Con-
venience
Con-
venience
   
TEAL Surveys (Personal Conversation, Malcoe 2004)
Total Elevated (=10 µg/dL) (%)     16 (25.0)     10 (13.3)        
Geometric BLL Mean     6.63     4.76        
% Child Tested/Pop (actual number tested)     43 (64)     50 (75)        
Sampling Design     Door-to-door     Door-to-door        
Ottawa Lead Poisoning Prevention Program
Total Elevated (=10 µg/dL) (%)         N/A 6 (8.2) 5 (12.2) 2 (6.67) 3 (3.4) N/A
Geometric BLL Mean         4.99 3.86 4.76 4.64 3.82 2.43
% Child Tested/Pop (actual number tested)         9 (13) 49 (73) 27 (41) 20 (30) 59 (88) 11 (17)
Sampling Design         Con-
venience
Con-
venience
Con-
venience
Con-
venience
Con-
venience
Con-
venience
* n=150 (estimate based on 2000 Census)

Table 6 - Existing Health Study Information

Factors Associated with Elevated BLLs* Teal Study
(Lynch et al. 2000) OR (95% CI)
Teal Study
(Malcoe et al. 2002) OR (95% CI)
Floor lead dust ≥ 10 µg/ft2 8.1 (1.8, 37.8) 11.4 (3.5, 37.3)
Yard soil lead
>500 mg/kg 6.4 (1.4, 30.7)  
>165.3 mg/kg (front yard)   4.1 (1.3, 12.4)
Any interior lead paint 3.0 (1.2, 7.8)  
Superfund location 3.4 (1.3, 8.8) 5.6 (1.8, 17.8)
Hand-to-mouth behaviors
index 2   7.0 (3.0, 16.5)
index 3   48.9 (8.7, 272.7)
* Blood lead levels

Table 7 - Children Aged 1-5 Years Living in the Tar Creek Superfund Site with Known Elevated BLLs in 2003, Residential Assessment Lead Exposure Status

Child Known Exposure Status* Environmental Testing (Y/N) Environmental Testing Date Age in Years Race Sex Residence Blood Lead Level
1 Unknown; frequent mover N   3 W M Commerce 13.0
2 Lead-based paint Y 12/16/2003 2 W M Quapaw 11.8
3 Lead-based paint Y 11/15/2003 3 W F Picher 12.1
4 Floor dust, soil, no electricity or running water Y 2/9/2001 2 W F Picher 17.6
5 Floor dust, soil, no electricity or running water Y 2/9/2001 5 W M Picher 15.8
6 Lead-based paint, floor dust, soil Y 9/12/2002 3 W M Quapaw 23.7
7 Lead-based paint, floor dust, soil Y 9/12/2002 1 W F Quapaw 17.0
* Child may have moved and potential exposure source may have been remediated since testing date.
[Source: Ottawa County Lead Poisoning Prevention Program Data, 2003]

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