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ToxFAQs™ for Chlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDDs)
This fact sheet answers the most frequently asked health questions about CDDs. For more information, you may call the ATSDR Information Center at 1-888-422-8737. This fact sheet is one in a series of summaries about hazardous substances and their health effects. This information is important because this substance may harm you. The effects of exposure to any hazardous substance depend on the dose, the duration, how you are exposed, personal traits and habits, and whether other chemicals are present.
Exposure to chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDDs) (75 chemicals) occurs mainly from eating food that contains the chemicals. One chemical in this group, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin or 2,3,7,8-TCDD, has been shown to be very toxic in animal studies. It causes effects on the skin and may cause cancer in people. This chemical has been found in at least 91 of 1,467 National Priorities List sites identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
What are CDDs?
CDDs are a family of 75 chemically related compounds commonly known as chlorinated dioxins. One of these compounds is called 2,3,7,8-TCDD. It is one of the most toxic of the CDDs and is the one most studied.
In the pure form, CDDs are crystals or colorless solids.
CDDs enter the environment as mixtures containing a number of individual components. 2,3,7,8-TCDD is odorless and the odors of the other CDDs are not known.
CDDs are not intentionally manufactured by industry except for research purposes. They (mainly 2,3,7,8-TCDD) may be formed during the chlorine bleaching process at pulp and paper mills. CDDs are also formed during chlorination by waste and drinking water treatment plants. They can occur as contaminants in the manufacture of certain organic chemicals. CDDs are released into the air in emissions from municipal solid waste and industrial incinerators.
What happens to CDDs when they enters the environment?
- When released into the air, some CDDs may be transported long distances, even around the globe.
- When released in waste waters, some CDDs are broken down by sunlight, some evaporate to air, but most attach to soil and settle to the bottom sediment in water.
- CDD concentrations may build up in the food chain, resulting in measurable levels in animals.
How might I be exposed to CDDs?
- Eating food, primarily meat, dairy products, and fish, makes up more than 90% of the intake of CDDs for the general population.
- Breathing low levels in air and drinking low levels in water.
- Skin contact with certain pesticides and herbicides.
- Living near an uncontrolled hazardous waste site containing CDDs or incinerators releasing CDDs.
- Working in industries involved in producing certain pesticides containing CDDs as impurities, working at paper and pulp mills, or operating incinerators.
How can CDDs affect my health?
The most noted health effect in people exposed to large amounts of 2,3,7,8-TCDD is chloracne. Chloracne is a severe skin disease with acne-like lesions that occur mainly on the face and upper body. Other skin effects noted in people exposed to high doses of 2,3,7,8-TCDD include skin rashes, discoloration, and excessive body hair. Changes in blood and urine that may indicate liver damage also are seen in people. Exposure to high concentrations of CDDs may induce long-term alterations in glucose metabolism and subtle changes in hormonal levels.
In certain animal species, 2,3,7,8-TCDD is especially harmful and can cause death after a single exposure. Exposure to lower levels can cause a variety of effects in animals, such as weight loss, liver damage, and disruption of the endocrine system. In many species of animals, 2,3,7,8-TCDD weakens the immune system and causes a decrease in the system's ability to fight bacteria and viruses. In other animal studies, exposure to 2,3,7,8-TCDD has caused reproductive damage and birth defects. Some animal species exposed to CDDs during pregnancy had miscarriages and the offspring of animals exposed to 2,3,7,8-TCDD during pregnancy often had severe birth defects including skeletal deformities, kidney defects, and weakened immune responses.
How likely are CDDs to cause cancer?
Several studies suggest that exposure to 2,3,7,8-TCDD increases the risk of several types of cancer in people. Animal studies have also shown an increased risk of cancer from exposure to 2,3,7,8-TCDD.
The World Health Organization (WHO) has determined that 2,3,7,8-TCDD is a human carcinogen.
The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) has determined that 2,3,7,8-TCDD may reasonably be anticipated to cause cancer.
How can CDDs affect children?
Very few studies have looked at the effects of CDDs on children. Chloracne has been seen in children exposed to high levels of CDDs. We don't know if CDDs affect the ability of people to have children or if it causes birth defects, but given the effects observed in animal studies, this cannot be ruled out.
How can families reduce the risk of exposure to CDDs?
- Children should avoid playing in soils near uncontrolled hazardous waste sites.
- Discourage children from eating dirt or putting toys or other objects in their mouths.
- Everyone should wash hands frequently if playing or working near uncontrolled hazardous waste sites.
- For new mothers and young children, restrict eating foods from the proximity of uncontrolled sites with known CDDs.
- Children and adults should eat a balanced diet preferably containing low to moderate amounts of animal fats including meat and dairy products, and fish that contain lower amounts of CDDs and eat larger amounts of fruits, vegetables and grains.
Is there a medical test to show whether I've been exposed to CDDs?
Tests are available to measure CDD levels in body fat, blood, and breast milk, but these tests are not routinely available. Most people have low levels of CDDs in their body fat and blood, and levels considerably above these levels indicate past exposure to above-normal levels of 2,3,7,8-TCDD. Although CDDs stay in body fat for a long time, tests cannot be used to determine when exposure occurred.
Has the federal government made recommendations to protect human health?
The EPA has set a limit of 0.00003 micrograms of 2,3,7,8-TCDD per liter of drinking water (0.00003 µg/L). Discharges, spills, or accidental releases of 1 pound or more of 2,3,7,8-TCDD must be reported to EPA. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommends against eating fish and shellfish with levels of 2,3,7,8-TCDD greater than 50 parts per trillion (50 ppt).
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 1998. Toxicological Profile for Chlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDDs). Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service.
Where can I get more information?
If you have questions or concerns, please contact your community or state health or environmental quality department or:
For more information, contact:
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
Division of Toxicology and Human Health Sciences
1600 Clifton Road NE, Mailstop F-57
Atlanta, GA 30333
Phone: 1-800-CDC-INFO · 888-232-6348 (TTY)
ATSDR can also tell you the location of occupational and environmental health clinics. These clinics specialize in recognizing, evaluating, and treating illnesses resulting from exposure to hazardous substances.
Information line and technical assistance:
To order toxicological profiles, contact:
National Technical Information Service
5285 Port Royal Road
Springfield, VA 22161
Phone: 800-553-6847 or 703-605-6000
Some PDF files may be electronic conversions from paper copy or other electronic ASCII text files. This conversion may have resulted in character translation or format errors. Users are referred to the original paper copy of the toxicological profile for the official text, figures, and tables. Original paper copies can be obtained via the directions on the toxicological profile home page, which also contains other important information about the profiles.
The information contained here was correct at the time of publication. Please check with the appropriate agency for any changes to the regulations or guidelines cited.
- Page last reviewed: March 3, 2011
- Page last updated: October 25, 2011
- Content source: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry