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Public Health Assessment
Air Pathway Evaluation,
Isla de Vieques Bombing Range,
Vieques, Puerto Rico

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August 26, 2003
Prepared by:

Federal Facilities Assessment Branch
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry

Historical Document

This Web site is provided by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) ONLY as an historical reference for the public health community. It is no longer being maintained and the data it contains may no longer be current and/or accurate.

Preparers of Report

Gary Campbell, Ph.D.
Environmental Health Scientist, Section Chief
Federal Facilities Assessment Branch
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation

W. Mark Weber, Ph.D.
Federal Facilities Assessment Branch
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation

Gregory M. Zarus, MS
Atmospheric Scientist
Exposure Investigation and Consultation Branch
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation

John Wilhelmi, MS
Senior Chemical Engineer
Eastern Research Group, Inc.


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ATSDR. 1999a. Toxicological Profile for Uranium. September 1999.

ATSDR. 1999b. Toxicological Profile for Ionizing Radiation. September 1999.

ATSDR. 1999c. Toxicological Profile for Aluminum. July 1999.

ATSDR. 2000a. Toxicological Profile for Arsenic. September 2000.

ATSDR. 2000b. Toxicological Profile for Chromium. September 2000.

ATSDR. 2001a. Focused Petitioned Public Health Assessment: Drinking Water Supplies and Groundwater Pathway Evaluation. October 16, 2001.

ATSDR. 2001b. Petitioned Public Health Assessment: Soil Pathway Evaluation. Public Comment draft. October 23, 2001.

ATSDR. 2001c. Summary Report for the Vieques Heart Study Expert Panel Review. October 2001.

ATSDR. 2001d. Letter to Gladys Gonzalez Martinez (PREQB) from Sandy Isaacs (ATSDR) concerning access to air sampling data for metals. December 19, 2001.

ATSDR. 2001e. Letter to Roberto Rabin (Committee for the Rescue and Development of Vieques) from Sandy Isaacs (ATSDR) concerning access to sampling data for radiation. December 19, 2001.

ATSDR. 2002. Air Comparison Values. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. April 2002.

ATSDR. 2003a. Petitioned Public Health Assessment: Soil Pathway Evaluation. Final Release. February 7, 2003.

ATSDR. 2003b. Petitioned Public Health Assessment: Fish and Shellfish Evaluation. Final Release. June 27, 2003.

Ballingrud, D. 2000. What's in the Wind. St. Petersburg Times. September 5, 2000.

Bjorklund et al. 1998. Open Burn/Open Detonation Dispersion Model (OBODM) User's Guide. JR Bjorklund, JF Bowers, GC Dodd, JM White. HE Cramer Company, Inc. April 1998.

CH2MHILL and Baker Environmental, Inc. (Baker). 1999. Results of the hydrogeologic investigation: Vieques Island, Puerto Rico; November 4, 1999.

Cherry GS and Ramos J. 1995. Water wells on Isla de Vieques, Puerto Rico. US Geological Survey, Open-file report 95-368. San Juan, Puerto Rico: 1995.

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Cooper, P.W. 996. Explosives Engineering. Paul W. Cooper. Wiley-VCH publishers. 1996.

CRDV. 2001. Dramatic Increase in Radiation in Vieques. Press Release from the Committee for the Rescue and Development of Vieques (CRDV). November 9, 2001.

Cruz Pérez. 2000. Contaminación Producida por Explosivos y Residuos de Explosivos en Vieques, Puerto Rico. Ing. Rafael Cruz Pérez. Dimension magazine, 2: 11-18. June 2000.

Defense Nuclear Agency. 1981. High-Explosive Field Tests: Explosion Phenomena and Environmental Impacts. Prepared for the Defense Nuclear Agency. October 1, 1981.

Department of the Navy (Navy), Atlantic Division. 1990. Water quality study at the U.S. Atlantic Fleet Weapons Training Facility, Vieques Island, Puerto Rico: September 1990.

EPA. 1985. Rapid Assessment of Exposure to Particulate Emissions from Surface Contamination Sites. US Environmental Protection Agency. EPA/600/8-85/002. February 1985.

EPA. 1986. INPUFF 2.0 - A Multiple Source Gaussian Puff Dispersion Algorithm. User's Guide (abbreviated). US Environmental Protection Agency. EPA-600/8-86/024. August 1986.

EPA. 1996. Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter. US Environmental Protection Agency, National Center for Environmental Assessment. EPA/600/P-95/001aF. April 1996.

EPA. 1997. 1987-1995 Toxics Release Inventory. CD-ROM Quick Reference Guide. US Environmental Protection Agency. EPA 749-C-97-003. August, 1997.

EPA. 1999. Interview with Engineer Rafael Cruz Pérez, P.E., on the Contamination of Drinking Water by Explosives in Vieques, P.R. Interview conducted by Jorge Martinez, P.E., EPA. August 4, 1999.

EPA. 2001. Data downloaded from US Environmental Protection Agency's "TRI Explorer, version 3.1" Web site ( Site last accessed: July, 2001.

EPA. 2002. Ambient air monitoring data accessed from AIRS. Written correspondence between Virginia Ambrose (EPA) and John Wilhelmi (ERG). July 15, 2002.

ERG. 2001. Vieques Air Monitoring Program. Eastern Research Group, Inc. December. 2001.

Fellowship of Reconciliation. 2001. Vieques Issue Brief: Environmental Impacts of Navy Training. November 2001.

GAO. 1998. DoD Management Issues Related to Chaff. Government Accounting Office. September 1998.

Griffin DW, VH Garrison, JR Herman, EA Shinn. 2001. African Desert Dust in the Caribbean Atmosphere: Microbiology and Public Health. Aerobiologia 17(3), 203-213. September 2001.

Halliburton NUS. 1995. Air Pathway Screening Assessments for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Subpart X Permitting. Halliburton NUS Corporation. May 15, 1995.

Hanna, S. 2001. ATSDR Review of Air Quality Modeling Studies. Dr. Steven Hanna. October 12, 2001.

Higgins, G. 2001. Written communication between Gary Higgins (Navy) and Mark Weber (ATSDR). September 17, 2001.

IT Corporation (IT). 2000. Atlantic Division Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Air dispersion modeling and related analyses for Inner Range operations, Vieques, Puerto Rico. Knoxville, TN: February 2000.

IT Corporation (IT). 2001. Revisions to "Air Dispersion Modeling and Related Analyses for Inner Range Operations, Vieques, Puerto Rico." Revision 1. May 2001.

Koplan JP, Deen RD, Swanston WH, Tota B. 1978. Contaminated roof-collected rainwater as a possible cause of an outbreak of samlonellosis. J Hyg (Lond), 81(2):303-309. October 1978.

Lugo-López, Bonnet, García. 1953. The Soils of the Island of Vieques. Bulletin 108, University of Puerto Rico, Agricultural Experiment Station. March 1953.

Moulin, C, C.E. Lambert, F Dulac, U Dayan. 1997. Control of Atmospheric Export of Dust from North Africa by the North Atlantic Oscillation. Nature 387, 691-694.

National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). 1994. Annual Climatological Summary for Vieques Island, Puerto Rico: May 1985 through January 1994.

National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). 2001. Meteorological data compiled for US Naval Air Station Roosevelt Roads, 1990 to 2000. Electronic transmittal from NCDC on July 18, 2001.

Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NFEC). 2000. Environmental Assessment for Transfer of the Naval Ammunition Support Detachment Property, Vieques, Puerto Rico. November 2000.

Naval Research Laboratory. 1999. Environmental Effects of RF Chaff: A Select Panel Report to the Undersecretary of Defense for Environmental Security. August 31, 1999.

Navy. 1971. Joint Staff Study of Vieques. March 1971.

Navy. 1977. Atlantic Fleet Weapons Training Facility. Inner Range Utilization, Culebra and Vieques: FY-69 thru FY-76. November 2, 1977.

Navy. 1990. Water Quality Study at the U.S. Atlantic Fleet Weapons Training Facility. Vieques Island, Puerto Rico. Department of the Navy, Atlantic Division Naval Facilities Engineering Command. September 1990.

Navy. 1994. Naval Radioactive Materials Permit. NRMP #13-00164-L1NP, Amendment 2. August 1994.

Navy. 1999. The National Security Need for Vieques. A study prepared for The Secretary of the Navy. July 15, 1999.

Navy. 2001. Installation Restoration Program: Community Fact Sheet. U.S. Naval Ammunition Support Detachment, Vieques Island, Puerto Rico. Issue Number 2. April, 2001.

Navy. 2002. VQ Range Statistics - Summary Report. Daily range utilization statistical summaries.

Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). 2000a. Letter from Luis A. Reyes to Carmen Feliciano Melecio concerning presence of depleted uranium on Vieques. Atlanta, GA: February 1, 2000.

Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). 2000b. Environmental Survey Inspection Report, Vieques Island, Puerto Rico: September 28, 2000.

Presidential Directives I and II. 2000. Resolutions regarding the use of range facilities on Vieques, Puerto Rico. 65 FR 5727-5731.

Prospero, JM. 1999a. Assessing the Impact of Advected African Dust on Air Quality and Health in the Eastern United States, Human and Health Risk Assessment: 5:471-479.

Prospero, JM. 1999b. Long-range Transport of Mineral Dust in Global Atmosphere: Impact of African Dust on the Environment of the Southeastern United States. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 96: 3396-3403. March 1999.

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Radian. 1996. Burro Canyon Open Burn/Open Detonation Health Risk Assessment. Prepared by Radian International LLC. Prepared for Naval Air Weapons Station, China Lake. July 11, 1996.

JA Salvato. 1982. Environmental Engineering and Sanitation. Joseph Salvato. John Wiley & Sons. 1982.

Servicios Científicos and Técnicos, Inc. (SCI). 2000. Environmental Impact of Navy Activities in Vieques. Dr. Neftalí Garcia, Ana M. López, Mariela Soto, Shereeza Rosado, and Brenda Berríos. July 11, 2000.

EA Shinn, GW Smith, JM Propsero, P Betzer, ML Hayes, V Garrison, RT Barber. African Dust and the Demise of Caribbean Coral Reefs. Geophysical Research Letters, 27(19):3029-3032. October 1, 2000.

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Taylor D. 2002. Dust in the Wind. Environmental Health Perspectives 110(2):A80-A87.

Texas Water Development Board. 1997. Texas Guide to Rainwater Harvesting. 1997.

Torres-Gonzalez S. 1989. Reconnaissance of the ground-water resources of Vieques Island, Puerto Rico. U.S. Geological Survey, Report 86-4100. San Juan, Puerto Rico: 1989.

Trinity Consultants. 2002. CALPUFF Air Dispersion Modeling Report: Vieques, Puerto Rico. June, 2002.

United Nations Environment Programme. 1997. Source Book of Alternative Technologies for Freshwater Augmentation in Latin America and the Caribbean. 1997.

United Nations Environment Programme. 1999. The potential effects on human health and the environment arising from possible use of depleted uranium during the 1999 Kosovo conflict. A preliminary assessment. United Nations Environmental Programme and the UNCHS Balkans Task Force. October, 1999.

US Bureau of the Census. 1990. Census of Population and Housing:  Summary Tape File. U.S. Department of Commerce. 1990.

US Bureau of the Census. 2000. Census of Population and Housing:  Summary Tape File. U.S. Department of Commerce. 2000.

US Geological Survey (USGS). 2000. African Dust Causes Widespread Environmental Distress. April 2000. Available from URL:

ViequesLibre. 2001. Web site: Last accessed, June 28, 2001.

ViequesWar. 2001. Web site: Last accessed, June 28, 2001.

Young, GA. 1978. Environmental dispersion of the products of explosions of conventional ordnance at Vieques Island, Naval Surface Weapons Center: August 28, 1978. The U.S. Government's Official Web PortalDepartment of Health and Human Services
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