Literature Cited

On This Page

Course: WB 1095
CE Original Date: May 23, 2008
CE Renewal Date: May 23, 2011
CE Expiration Date: May 23, 2013
Download Printer-Friendly Version pdf icon[PDF – 463 KB]


Literature Cited for this Case Study


(ATSDR) Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 2002. Toxicological profile for beryllium. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services.

Barna BP, Culver DA, Yen-Lieberman B, Dweik RA, Thomassen MJ. 2003. Clinical application of beryllium lymphocyte proliferation testing. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 10(6):990-4.

Berlin JM, Taylor JS, Sigel JE, Bergfeld WF, Dweik RA. 2003. Beryllium dermatitis. J Am Acad Dermatol49(5):939-41.

Bobka CA, Stewart LA, Engelken GJ, Golitz LE, Newman LS. 1997. Comparison of in vivo and in vitro measures of beryllium sensitization. J Occup Environ Med 39(6):540-7.

Deubner D, Kelsh M, Shum M, Maier L, Kent M, Lau E. 2001. Beryllium sensitization, chronic beryllium disease, and exposures at a beryllium mining and extraction facility. Appl Occup Environ Hyg 16(5):579-92.

Deubner DC, Goodman M, Iannuzzi J. 2001. Variability, predictive value, and uses of the beryllium blood lymphocyte proliferation test (BLPT): preliminary analysis of the ongoing workforce survey. Appl Occup Environ Hyg 16(5):521-6.

Deubner DC, Lowney YW, Paustenbach DJ, Warmerdam J. 2001. Contribution of incidental exposure pathways to total beryllium exposures. Appl Occup Environ Hyg 16(5):568-78.

Dotti C, D’Apice MR, Rogliani P, Novelli G, Saltini C, Amicosante M. 2004. Analysis of TNF-alpha promoter polymorphisms in the susceptibility to beryllium hypersensitivity. Sarcoidosis Vasculitis & Diffuse Lung Diseases 21:29-34.

Dudley H. 1959. The pathologic changes of chronic beryllium disease. AMA Arch Ind Health 19:102-5.

Farris GM, Newman LS, Frome EL, Shou Y, Barker E, Habbersett RC, et al. 2000. Detection of beryllium sensitivity using a flow cytometric lymphocyte proliferation test: the Immuno-Be-LPT. Toxicology 143(2):125-40.

Fireman E, Haimsky E, Noiderfer M, Priel I, Lerman Y. 2003. Misdiagnosis of sarcoidosis in patients with chronic beryllium disease. Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis 20(2):144-8.

Frome EL, Newman LS, Cragle DL, Colyer SP, Wambach PF. 2003. Identification of an abnormal beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test. Toxicology 183(1-3):39-56.

Glazer CS, Newman LS. 2003. Chronic beryllium disease: don’t miss the diagnosis. J Respir Dis 24(8):357-63.

Glazer CS, Newman LS. 2004. Occupational interstitial lung disease. Clin Chest Med 25(3):467-78.

Gordon T, Bowser D. 2003. Beryllium: genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. Mutat Res 533(1-2):99-105.

Grimaudo NJ. 2001. Biocompatibility of nickel and cobalt dental alloys. Gen Dent 49(5):498-503.

Henneberger PK, Cumro D, Deubner DD, Kent MS, McCawley M, Kreiss K. 2001. Beryllium sensitization and disease among long-term and short-term workers in a beryllium ceramics plant. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 74(3):167-76.

Henneberger PK, Goe SK, Miller WE, Doney B, Groce DW. 2004. Industries in the United States with airborne beryllium exposure and estimates of the number of current workers potentially exposed. J Occup Environ Hyg 1:648-59.

(IARC) International Agency for Research on Cancer. 2001. Overall evaluations of carcinogenicity to humans. International Agency for the Research on Cancer. Available at: icon (updated 2001 December 18; cited 2007).

(IARC) International Agency for Research on Cancer. 1993. Beryllium and beryllium compounds (Group 1). Vol. 58. Lyon, France: World Health Organization. p. 41.

IRIS Integrated Risk Information System. 2002. Beryllium and compounds. Integrated Risk Information System. Available at: icon (updated 2002 March 11; cited 2007).

Judd NL, Griffith WC, Takaro T, Faustman EM. 2003. A model for optimization of biomarker testing frequency to minimize disease and cost: example of beryllium sensitization testing. Risk Anal 23(6):1211-20.

Kelleher PC, Martyny JW, Mroz MM, Maier LA, Ruttenber AJ, Young DA, et al. 2001. Beryllium particulate exposure and disease relations in a beryllium machining plant. J Occup Environ Med 43(3):238-49.

Kim Y. 2004. Acute beryllium disease in metal workers. Eur Respir J. 24:149S.

Kolanz ME, Madl AK, Kelsh MA, Kent MS, Kalmes RM, Paustenbach DJ. 2001. A comparison and critique of historical and current exposure assessment methods for beryllium: implications for evaluating risk of chronic beryllium disease. Appl Occup Environ Hyg 16(5):593-614.

Kolanz ME. 2001. Introduction to beryllium: uses, regulatory history, and disease. Appl Occup Environ Hyg 16(5):559-67.

Kreiss K, Mroz MM, Zhen B, Martyny JW, Newman LS. 1993. Epidemiology of beryllium sensitization and disease in nuclear workers. Am Rev Respir Dis 148(4):985-91.

Kreiss, K, Newman L.S., Mros, M.M., Campbell, PA. 1989. Screening blood test identifies subclinical beryllium disease. Journal of Occupational Medicine 31:603-608.

Kress J, Crispell K. 1944. Chemical pneumonitis in men working with fluorescent powders containing beryllium. Guthrie Clin Bull 13:61-95.

Levy PS, Roth HD, Hwang PM, Powers TE. 2002. Beryllium and lung cancer: a reanalysis of a NIOSH cohort mortality study. Inhal Toxicol 14(10):1003-15.

Lundgren RA, Maier LA, Rose CS, Balkissoon RC, Newman LS. 2001. Indirect and direct gas exchange at maximum exercise in beryllium sensitization and disease. Chest 120(5):1702-8.

Maier LA, McGrath DS, Sato H, Lympany P, Welsh K, Du Bois R, Silveira L, Fontenot AP, Sawyer RT, Wilcox E, Newman LS. 2003. Influence of MHC class II in susceptibility to beryllium sensitization and chronic beryllium disease. Journal of Immunology 171:6910-6918.

Maier LA, Kittle LA, Mroz MM, Newman LS. 2003. Beryllium-stimulated neopterin as a diagnostic adjunct in chronic beryllium disease. Am J Ind Med 43(6):592-601.

Maier LA, Sawyer RT, Tinkle SS, Kittle LA, Barker EA, Balkissoon R, et al. 2001. IL-4 fails to regulate in vitro beryllium-induced cytokines in berylliosis. Eur Respir J 17(3):403-15.

Maier LA. 2001. Beryllium health effects in the era of the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test. Appl Occup Environ Hyg 16(5):514-20.

Maier LA. 2002. Clinical approach to chronic beryllium disease and other nonpneumoconiotic interstitial lung diseases. J Thorac Imaging 17:273-84.

Martyny JW, Hoover MD, Mroz MM, Ellis K, Maier LA, Sheff KL, et al. 2000. Aerosols generated during beryllium machining. J Occup Environ Med 42(1):8-18.

McCanlies EC, Ensey JS, Schuler CR, Kreiss K, Weston A. 2004. The association between HLA-DPß 1Glu69 and chronic beryllium disease and beryllium sensitization. American Journal of Industrial Medicine. 46:95-103.

McCanlies EC, Kreiss K, Andrew M, Weston A. 2003. HLA-DPB and chronic beryllium disease: a HuGE review. American Journal of Epidemiology 157:388-398.

McCanlies EC, Schuler CR, Kreiss K, Frye BL, Ensey JS, Weston A. 2007. TNF-alpha polymorphisms in chronic beryllium disease and beryllium sensitization. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine. 49:446-452.

Meyer KC. 1994. Beryllium and lung disease. Chest. 106:942-946.

Middleton DC. 1998. Chronic beryllium disease: uncommon disease, less common diagnosis. Environ Health Perspect 106(12):765-7.

Milovanova TN, Popma SH, Cherian S, Moore JS, Rossman MD. 2004. Flow cytometric test for beryllium sensitivity. Cytometry B-Clin Cytom 60(1):23-30.

Müller-Quernheim J, Kienast K, Held M, Pfeifer S, Costabel U. 1999. Treatment of chronic sarcoidosis with an azathioprine/prednisolone regimen. Eur Respir J 14:1117-22.

Müller-Quernheim J. Chronic beryllium disease. In: Orphanet encyclopedia. Available at: pdf icon[PDF – 156 KB]external icon. (updated 2005 November; cited 2007

(NTP) National Toxicology Program. 1999. Report on Carcinogens Background Document for Beryllium and Beryllium Compounds. Meeting of the NTP Board of Scientific Counselors. Report on Carcinogens Subcommittee. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program, Research Triangle Park, NC.

(NTP) National Toxicology Program. 2002. Beryllium and beryllium compounds. Vol. 10. Report on carcinogens: carcinogen profiles. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina: National Toxicology Program.

Newman LS, Kreiss K. 1992. Nonoccupational beryllium disease masquerading as sarcoidosis: identification by blood lymphocyte proliferative response to beryllium. American Review of Respiratory Disease. 145:1212-1214.

Newman LS, Lloyd J, Daniloff E. 1996. The natural history of beryllium sensitization and chronic beryllium disease. Environ Health Perspect 104(Suppl 5):937-43.

Newman LS, Maier L. 2001. Beryllium. In: Clinical environmental health and toxic exposures. Sullivan J, Krieger G, editors. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Williams & Wilkins. p. 919-26.

Newman LS, Maier LA, Martyny JW, Mroz MM, VanDyke MV, Sackett HS. 2005. Letter to the editor: Beryllium workers’ health risks. J Occup Environ Hyg 2(6): D 48-50.

Newman LS, Mroz MM, Balkissoon R, Maier LA. 2005. Beryllium sensitization progresses to chronic beryllium disease: a longitudinal study of disease risk. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 171:54-60.

Newman LS, Mroz MM, Maier LA, Daniloff EM, Balkissoon R. 2001. Efficacy of serial medical surveillance for chronic beryllium disease in a beryllium machining plant. J Occup Environ Med 43(3):231-7.

Newman LS. 1998. Metals that cause sarcoidosis. Semin Respir Infect 13:212-20.

Newman LS. 1996. Significance of the blood beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test. Environ Health Perspect 104(Suppl 5):953-6.

Pappas GP, Newman LS. 1993. Early pulmonary physiologic abnormalities in beryllium disease. Am Rev Respir Dis 148:661-6.

Paustenbach DJ, Madl AK, Greene JF. 2001. Identifying an appropriate occupational exposure limit (OEL) for beryllium: data gaps and current research initiatives. Appl Occup Environ Hyg 16(5):527-38.

Pott GB, Palmer BE, Sullivan AK, Silviera L, Maier LA, Newman LS, Kotzin BL, Fontenot AP. 2005. Frequency of beryllium-specific, TH1-type cytokine-expressing CD4+ T cells in patients with beryllium-induced disease. J Allergy Clin Immunol 115(5):1036-42.

Richeldi L. Sorrentino R. Saltini C. 1993. HLA-DPB glutamate 69: a genetic marker of beryllium disease. Science. 262:242-244, .

Richeldi L, Kreiss K, Mroz MM, Zhen B, Tartoni P, Saltini C. 1997. Interaction of genetic and exposure factors in the prevalence of berylliosis. American Journal of Industrial Medicine. 32:337-340.

Rossman MD, Stubbs J, Lee CW, Argyris E, Magira E, Monos D. 2002. Human leukocyte antigen Class II amino acid epitopes: susceptibility and progression markers for beryllium hypersensitivity. American Journal of Respiratory & Critical Care Medicine. 165:788-794.

Rossman MD. 2001. Chronic beryllium disease: a hypersensitivity disorder. Appl Occup Environ Hyg 16(5):615-8.

Rossman MD. 1996. Chronic beryllium disease: diagnosis and management. Environ Health Perspect 104(Suppl 5):945-7.

Saltini C, Amicosante M. 2001. Beryllium disease. Am J Med Sci 321(1): 89-98.

Saltini C, Richeldi L, Losi M, Amicosante M, Voorter C. van den Berg-Loonen E, Dweik RA, Wiedemann HP, Deubner DC, Tinelli C. 2001. Major histocompatibility locus genetic markers of beryllium sensitization and disease. European Respiratory Journal. 18:677-684.

Sanderson WT, Ward EM, Steenland K, Petersen MR. 2001. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Lung cancer case-control study of beryllium workers. Am J Ind Med 39(2):133-44.

Sato H, Silveira L, Fingerlin T, Dockstader K, Gillespie M, Lagan AL, Lympany P, Sawyer RT, du Bois RM, Welsh KI, Maier LA. 2007. TNF polymorphism and bronchoalveolar lavage cell TNF-alpha levels in chronic beryllium disease and beryllium sensitization. Journal of Allergy & Clinical Immunology. 119:687-696.

Sawyer RT, Maier LA, Kittle LA, Newman LS. 2002. Chronic beryllium disease: a model interaction between innate and acquired immunity. Int Immunopharmacol 2(2-3):249-61.

Sood A, Beckett WS, Cullen MR. 2004. Variable response to long-term corticosteroid therapy in chronic beryllium disease. Chest 126:2000-7.

Stange AW, Furman FJ, Hilmas DE. 2004. The beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test: relevant issues in beryllium health surveillance. Am J Indust Med 46:453-62.

Steenland K, Ward E. 1991. Lung cancer incidence among patients with beryllium disease: a cohort mortality study. J Natl Cancer Inst 83(19):1380-5.

Stefaniak AB, Hoover MD, Day GA, et al. 2004. Characterization of physicochemical properties of beryllium aerosols associated with prevalence of chronic beryllium disease. J Environ Monit 6(6):523-32.

Stonehouse AJ, Zenczak S. 1991. Properties, production processes, and applications. In: Rossman MD, Preuss O, Powers MB, eds. Beryllium: biomedical and environmental aspects. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, pp. 276 – 655.

Taylor TP, Ding M, Ehler DS, Foreman TM, Kaszuba JP, Sauer NN. 2003. Beryllium in the environment: a review. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 38(2):439-69.

Tinkle SS, Antonini JM, Rich BA, Roberts JR, Salmen R, DePree K, et al. 2003. Skin as a route of exposure and sensitization in chronic beryllium disease. Environ Health Perspect 111(9):1202-8.

Tinkle SS, Kittle LA, Newman LS. 1999. Partial IL-10 inhibition of the cell-mediated immune response in chronic beryllium disease. J Immunol 163(5):2747-53.

Verma DK, Ritchie AC, Shaw ML. 2003. Measurement of beryllium in lung tissue of a chronic beryllium disease case and cases with sarcoidosis. Occup Med (London) 53(3):223-7.

Wambach PF, Tuggle RM. 2000. Development of an eight-hour occupational exposure limit for beryllium. Appl Occup Environ Hyg 15(7):581-7.

Wang Z, White PS, Petrovic M, Tatum OL, Newman LS, Maier LA, Marrone BL. 1999. Differential susceptibilities to chronic beryllium disease contributed by different Glu69 HLA-DPB1 and -DPA1 alleles. Journal of Immunology. 163:1647-1653.

Wang Z, Farris GM, Newman LS, Shou Y, Maier LA, Smith HN, Marrone BL. 2001. Beryllium sensitivity is linked to HLA-DP genotype. Toxicology. 165:27-38.

Weston A, Snyder J, McCanlies EC, Schuler CR, Andrew ME, Kreiss K, Demchuk E. 2005. Immunogenetic factors in beryllium sensitization and chronic beryllium disease. Mutation Research. 592:68-78.

Willis HH, Florig HK. 2002. Potential exposures and risks from beryllium-containing products. Risk Anal 22(5):1019-33.

Page last reviewed: May 23, 2008