Appendix F: Activities of Concern with Former or Adjacent Uses to a Site

Activity Concerns if activity occurred on the ECE site Concerns if activity is nearby the ECE Possible chemical contaminants
Appendix F: Activities of Concern with Former or Adjacent Uses to a Site
Airports Possible soil, surface water, runoff, or groundwater contamination from activities on site, such as use of firefighting foam. Vapor intrusion from contamination in soil or groundwater plumes. Possible soil, surface water, runoff, or groundwater contamination from activities on site, such as use of firefighting foam. Chemical contaminants can migrate off site if environmental conditions move soil, surface water, or groundwater onto the ECE site. Contaminated groundwater can contaminate indoor air by vapor intrusion. Trichloroethylene (TCE), jet fuel, perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) including perfluorooctanoic (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS)
Automobile crushing Possible soil, surface water, or groundwater contamination from activities on site. Vapor intrusion from contamination in soil or groundwater plumes. Possible soil, surface water, or groundwater contamination from hazardous materials on site. Chemical contaminants can migrate off site if environmental conditions move soil, surface water, or groundwater onto the ECE site. Contaminated groundwater can contaminate indoor air by vapor intrusion. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), mercury, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), lead
Automotive repair Soil, surface water, or groundwater contamination from improper use, storage, handling, or disposal of hazardous materials or products. Vapor intrusion from contamination in soil or groundwater plumes. Possible soil, surface water, or groundwater contamination from hazardous materials that were on site. Chemical contaminants can migrate off site if environmental conditions move soil, surface water, or groundwater onto the ECE program site. Contaminated groundwater can contaminate indoor air by vapor intrusion. Lead, PAHs, petroleum, perchloroethylene (PCE), TCE, and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX)
Bus terminal or truck transfer station (active) Unlikely ECE program would be on an active transfer station site. High volume of diesel engines could create large amount of particulate matter in the air. Particulate matter (PM)
Chemical production Possible soil, surface water, or groundwater contamination from hazardous materials that were on site. Vapor intrusion from contamination in soil or groundwater plumes. Possible soil, surface water, or groundwater contamination from hazardous materials on site. Chemical contaminants can migrate off site if environmental conditions move soil, surface water, or groundwater onto the ECE site. Contaminated groundwater can contaminate indoor air by vapor intrusion. VOCs, PAHs, metals
Coal gasification Soil, surface water, or groundwater contamination from hazardous materials used or disposed of on site. Vapor intrusion from contamination in soil or groundwater plumes. Possible exposure to wind-blown dust. PAHs, VOCs, lead, cyanide compounds
Concentrated animal feeding operations Unlikely ECE program would be on an active concentrated animal feeding operation site. When thousands of animals are in one space they create a large amount of animal waste. This waste can contaminate water. Salts from large amounts of manure can also pollute groundwater. Nitrates, salts
Dump, landfill, or filled wetland (former) Possible soil, surface water, or groundwater contamination from hazardous materials placed in landfill or from activities on the site. Indoor air contamination from vapor intrusion Possible soil, surface water, or groundwater contamination from hazardous materials place in landfill or from activities on the site. Indoor air contamination from vapor intrusion. VOCs, PAHs, mercury, lead, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), metals
Dumping (any illegal) Possible soil, surface water, or groundwater contamination from hazardous materials placed in landfill or from activities that happened on the site. Vapor intrusion from contamination in soil or groundwater plumes. Possible soil, surface water, or groundwater contamination from hazardous materials on site. These chemical contaminants can migrate off site if environmental conditions move soil, surface water, or groundwater onto the ECE site. Contaminated groundwater can contaminate indoor air by vapor intrusion. VOCs, PAHs, mercury, lead, PCBs, asbestos, other dumped chemicals
Dry cleaner Soil or groundwater contamination from improper disposal of dry cleaning solvents. Vapor intrusion issues for any structures on site. Chemicals used in dry cleaning can contaminate the air. Shared HVAC systems can increase the chance that chemicals from an active business could contaminate air within a nearby ECE program. Chemicals from a dry cleaning business that is active or closed can also contaminate soil and groundwater if chemicals were not properly handled on site. Chemicals in soil or groundwater might then enter indoor space through vapor intrusion. PCE, TCE
Electronics manufacturing/ recycling Soil, surface water, or groundwater contamination from hazardous materials that were on site. Improper handling or storage of chemicals such as degreasers. Vapor intrusion can result from contamination in soil or groundwater plumes. Improper handling or storage of chemicals such as degreasers can potentially migrate off site if environmental conditions move soil, surface water, or groundwater onto the ECE program site. Contaminated groundwater can contaminate indoor air by vapor intrusion. VOCs, PCBs, metals, PAHs, TCE, PCE
Factory, manufacturing, or industry work (former) Soil and groundwater could be contaminated from past use of the site and improper storage or disposal of chemicals. Inside building could be contaminated with mercury (used in thermometers or lamps) or other chemicals that would remain inside long after manufacturing was completed. Possible soil, surface water, or groundwater contamination from hazardous materials on site. These chemical contaminants can migrate off site if environmental conditions move soil, surface water, or groundwater onto the ECE site. Contaminated groundwater can contaminate indoor air by vapor intrusion. Mercury, lead and other metals, VOCs, PAHs, asbestos, PCBs, PFAS
Firefighting training Possible soil, surface water, or groundwater contamination from firefighting foam. Possible soil, surface water, or groundwater contamination from hazardous materials on site. These chemical contaminants can migrate off site if environmental conditions move soil, surface water, or groundwater onto the ECE site. Contaminated groundwater can contaminate indoor air by vapor intrusion. PFAS
Funeral homes Possible indoor air contamination from chemicals used within the funeral home if an original building is being used. Contamination from nearby site less likely concern because potential contamination from practices are likely inside a structure. Formaldehyde
Gas station Soil or groundwater contamination from leaking storage tanks. This contamination could also lead to vapor intrusion issues for any structures on site. Spills of petroleum or degreasers could contaminate soil, surface water, or groundwater. These chemical contaminants can migrate off site if environmental conditions move soil, surface water, or groundwater onto the ECE site. Contaminated groundwater can contaminate indoor air by vapor intrusion. VOCs, lead, PAHs, BTEX
Industrial manufacturing Soil, surface water, or groundwater contamination from hazardous materials used or disposed of on site. Possible indoor contamination from past manufacturing. Possible soil, surface water, or groundwater contamination from hazardous materials used or disposed of on site. These chemical contaminants can migrate off site if environmental conditions move soil, surface water, or groundwater onto the ECE program site. Contaminated groundwater can contaminate indoor air by vapor intrusion. VOCs, PCBs, metals, PFAS including PFOA and PFOS, and other chemicals depending on manufacturing
Junk yard Possible soil, surface water, or groundwater contamination from hazardous materials on site or from activities that happened on the site. Physical hazards. Possible soil, surface water, or groundwater contamination from hazardous materials on site. These chemical contaminants can migrate off site if environmental conditions move soil, surface water, or groundwater onto the ECE site. Contaminated groundwater can contaminate indoor air by vapor intrusion. VOCs, PAHs, mercury, lead, PCBs, metals, asbestos
Laboratories or research facilities Possible indoor air contamination from hazardous materials used within laboratory buildings if original buildings are being used. Possible soil, surface water, or groundwater contamination from hazardous materials that were on site. Vapor intrusion from contamination in soil or groundwater plumes. These chemical contaminants can migrate off site if environmental conditions move soil, surface water, or groundwater onto the ECE program care site. Contaminated groundwater can contaminate indoor air by vapor intrusion. Mercury, VOCs, PAHs, metals, TCE
Manufactured gas plant Possible soil, surface water, or groundwater contamination from activities on site. Possible soil, surface water, or groundwater contamination from activities on site. These chemical contaminants can migrate off site if environmental conditions move soil, surface water, or groundwater onto the ECE site. PAHs, metals
Medical or dental clinic Possible indoor air contamination from hazardous materials used within the clinic if an original building is being used. Contamination from nearby site less likely concern since potential contamination from practices are likely inside a structure. Mercury, chemotherapy agents
Metal recycling Possible soil, surface water, or groundwater contamination from activities on site. Vapor intrusion from contamination in soil or groundwater plumes. Possible soil, surface water, or groundwater contamination from activities on site. These chemical contaminants can migrate off site if environmental conditions move soil, surface water, or groundwater onto the ECE site. Lead, mercury, PAHs, VOCsM.
Meth Lab (clandestine drug lab) Possible contamination of indoor spaces and chemical improperly handled or dumped on site. Contamination from nearby site less likely concern since contamination from a clandestine drug lab are likely inside a structure. Acids, bases, pharmaceuticals, illegal drugs
Military installations Possible soil, surface water, runoff, or groundwater contamination from activities on site. Vapor intrusion from soil or groundwater plumes. Possible soil, surface water, runoff, or groundwater contamination from activities on site. Vapor intrusion from soil or groundwater plumes. Solvents, petroleum, BTEX, radionuclides
Mill buildings (formerly used for manufacturing) Indoor contamination from past manufacturing. Outside soil, surface water, or groundwater contamination from past use or disposal of hazardous materials. Possible exposure to wind-blown dust. Possible exposure to wind-blown dust. Contaminated ground water could migrate off site and cause an indoor air contamination from vapor intrusion VOCs, mercury, lead, arsenic, PCBs, metals, asbestos
Mines or abandoned mine sites Soil, surface water, or groundwater contamination from mine tailings and waste rock. Possible soil, surface water, or groundwater contamination from mine tailings and waste rock. These chemical contaminants can migrate off site if environmental conditions move soil, surface water, or groundwater onto the ECE site. Metals, radioactive mine waste
Nail, hair or beauty salon Chemicals used in these businesses are more likely to be a concern if business is adjacent to an ECE program. Chemicals used in nail and beauty salons can contaminate air. Shared HVAC systems can increase the chance that chemicals from an active business could contaminate the air within a nearby ECE program. Toluene, Dibutyl phthalate, Formaldehyde, Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), Ethyl or butyl acetate, Methyl methacrylate
Orchards or agricultural use Possible soil or groundwater contamination from pesticide use. Spray from pesticide application can drift off site onto nearby sites. Wind or rain may cause contaminated soil to move onto the ECE program site. Contaminated ground or surface water could also impact drinking water wells. Many fertilizers contain forms of nitrogen that can break down into harmful nitrates. Arsenic, pesticides
Plating facility Soil, surface water, or groundwater contamination from hazardous materials improperly used, stored, or disposed on site. Improper handling or storage of chemicals can potentially migrate off site if environmental conditions move soil, surface water, or groundwater onto the ECE program site. VOCs, PCBs, metals
Pipelines Aging pipelines may pose a risk if leaks occur. Aging pipelines may pose a risk if leaks occur. Natural gas pipelines transport natural gas. Liquid petroleum (oil) pipelines transport liquid petroleum and some liquefied gases, including carbon dioxide. Liquid petroleum includes crude oil and refined products made from crude oil, such as gasoline, home heating oil, diesel fuel, aviation gasoline, jet fuels, and kerosene. Liquefied ethylene, propane, and butane, are also transported through oil pipelines.
Railroad station/transfer station (active) Unlikely an ECE program would be on an active transfer station site. High volume of diesel engines could create large amount of particulate matter in the air. PM
Shooting range, gun club Possible soil contamination from discharge of thousands of rounds of ammunition. Possible soil contamination from discharge of thousands of rounds of ammunition. Contaminants can migrate off site if environmental conditions move soil or surface water onto the ECE program site. Lead, arsenic, PAHs
Storage of any hazardous materials Possible soil or groundwater contamination from the hazardous materials that were on site. Vapor intrusion from contamination in soil or groundwater plumes. Possible soil, surface water, or groundwater contamination from hazardous materials on site. These chemical contaminants can migrate off site if environmental conditions move soil, surface water, or groundwater onto the ECE site. Contaminated groundwater can contaminate indoor air by vapor intrusion. Dependent on past use
Tire storage or dumping Possible soil, surface water, or groundwater contamination from the storage or breakdown of tires. Possible soil, surface water, or groundwater contamination from the storage or breakdown of tires. VOCs, PAHs, mercury, lead
Waste transfer or recycling stations Possible soil, surface water, or groundwater contamination from hazardous materials on site or from activities that happened on the site. Vapor intrusion from contamination in soil or groundwater plumes. Active recycling or transfer stations might have soil contamination or generate dust that could bring contamination from the site onto a nearby daycare. Possible soil, surface water, or groundwater contamination from hazardous materials on site. These chemicals can migrate off site if environmental conditions move soil, surface water, or groundwater onto the ECE program site. Contaminated groundwater can contaminate indoor air by vapor intrusion. VOCs, PAHs, mercury, lead, PCBs, metals
Underground storage tanks (known or suspected) Soil or groundwater contamination from leaking storage tanks. Possible indoor air contamination from vapor intrusion. A leaking nearby tank could cause possible indoor air contamination from vapor intrusion. VOCs, petroleum, BTEX

 

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