Course: WB 1519
CE Original Date: July 1, 2009
CE Renewal Date: July 1, 2011
CE Expiration Date: July 1, 2013
Download Printer-Friendly Version pdf icon[PDF – 546 KB]
[ACGIH] American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. 2005. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) biologic exposure indices (BEI) Cincinnati, OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.
Adonis M, Martinez V, Riquelme R, Ancic P, Gonzalez G, Tapia R, et al. 2003. Susceptibility and exposure biomarkers in people exposed to PAHs from diesel exhaust. Toxicol Lett 144(1):3–15.
[ATSDR] Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 1995. Toxicological profile for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (update). Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services.
Alexandrie AK, Warholm M, Carstensen U, Axmon A, Hagmar L, Levin JO, et al. 2000. CYP1A1 and GSTM1 polymorphisms affect urinary 1-hydroxypyrene levels after PAH exposure. Carcinogenesis 21(4): 669–76.
Ambrosone CB, Freudenheim JL, Graham S, Marshall JR, Vena JE, Brasure JR, et al. 1995. Cytochrome P4501A1 and glutathione S-transferase (M1) genetic polymorphisms and post menopausal breast cancer risk. Cancer Res 55(16):3483–5.
Armstrong B, Hutchinson E, Unwin J, Fletcher T. 2004. Lung cancer risk after exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: a review and meta-analysis. Environ Health Perspect 112(9): 970–8.
Bach PB, Kelley MJ, Tate RC, McCrory DC. 2003. Screening for lung cancer: a review of the current literature. Chest 123(1 Suppl):72S–82S.
Bach PB, Niewoehner DE, Black WC; 2003. American College of Chest Physicians. Screening for lung cancer: the guidelines. Chest 123(1 Suppl):83S–88S.
Badiali D, Marcheggiano A, Pallone F, Paoluzi P, Bausano G, Iannoni C, et al. 1985. Melanosis of the rectum in patients with chronic constipation. Dis Colon Rectum 28(4):241–5.
Bartsch H, Nair U, Risch A, Rojas M, Wikman H, Alexandrov K. 2000. Genetic polymorphism of CYP genes, alone or in combination, as a risk modifier of tobacco-related cancers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 9:3–28.
Becher G, Bjorseth A. 1983. Determination of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by analysis of human urine. Cancer Lett 17:301–11.
Bhatia R, Lopipeto P, Smith AH. 1998. Diesel exhaust exposure and lung cancer. Epidemiology 9:84–91.
Blanton RJ, Lyte M, Myers MJ, Bick PH. 1986. Immunomodulation by polyaromatic hydrocarbons in mice and murine cells. Cancer Res 46(6):2735–9.
Blanton RH, Myers MJ, Bick PH. 1988. Modulation of immunocompetent cell populations by benzo(a)pyrene. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 93:267–74.
Boffetta P, Harris RE, Wynder EL. 1990. Case-control study on occupational exposure to diesel exhaust and lung cancer risk. Am J Ind Med 17:577–591.
Boffetta P, Jourenkova N, Gustavsson P. 1997. Cancer risk from occupational and environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Cancer Causes and Controlexternal icon 8(3):444–72.
Boffetta P, Stellman SD, Garfinkel L. 1988. Diesel exhaust exposure and mortality among males in the American Cancer Society prospective study. Am J Ind Med 14:403–15.
Busbee DL, Normal JO, Ziprin RL. 1990. Comparative uptake, vascular transport and cellular internalization of aflatoxin B1 and benzo[a]pyrene. Arch Toxicol 64(4):285–90.
Calaf G, Russo J. 1993. Transformation of human breast epithelial cells by chemical carcinogens. Carcinogenesis 14(3):483–92.
[CDC] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Third National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals. Atlanta GA [updated 2005 July; accessed 2009 June]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/ExposureReport/
Chakravarti V, Pelling JC, Cavalieri EL, Rogan EG. 1995. Relating aromatic hydrocarbon-induced DNA adducts and c-H-ras mutations in mouse skin papillomas. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92(22):10422–6.
Cherng SH, Lin ST, Lee H. 1996. Modulatory effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on the mutagenicity of 1-nitropyrene: a structure-activity relationship study. Mut Res 367(4):177–85.
Chuang JC, Callahan PJ, Lyu CW, Wilson NK. 1999. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposures of children in low-income families. J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol;9(2):85–98.
Chuang CY, Lee CC, Chang YK, Sung FC. 2003. Oxidative DNA damage estimated by urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine; influence of taxi driving, smoking and areca chewing. Chemosphere;52(7):1163–71.
Cresia DA, Poggenburg JK, Nettesheim P. 1976. Elution of benzo[a]pyrene from carbon particles in the respiratory tract of mice. J Toxicol Environ Health 1:967–75.
Dasgupta PS, Lahiri T. 1992. Alteration of brain catecholamines during growth of benzo[a]pyrene induced murine fibrosarcoma. Neoplasm 39(3):163–5.
Davis DL, Bradlow HL, Wolff M, Woodruff T, Hoel DG. 1993. Medical xenoestrogens as preventable causes of breast cancer. Environ Health Perspect 101(5):372–7.
Denissenko MF. 1996. Preferential formation of benzo(a)pyrene adducts at lung cancer mutational hotspots in P53. Science 274:430–2.
DiGiovanni J, Bletran L, Rupp A, Harvey RG, Gill RD. 1993. Further analysis of c-Ha-ras mutations in papillomas initiated by several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and papillomas from uninitiated, promoter-treated skin in SENCAR mice. Mol Carcinog 8(4):272–9.
Doll R, Fisher REW, Gammon EJ, Gunn W, Hughes GO, Tyrer FH, et al. 1965. Mortality of gas workers with special reference to cancers of the lung and bladder, chronic bronchitis and pneumoconiosis. Br J Ind Med 22(1):1–12.
Doll R, Vessey MP, Beasley RWR, Buckley AR, Fear EC, Fisher REW, et al. 1972. Mortality of gas workers—final report of a prospective study. Br J Ind Med 29(4):394–406.
Environmental Research and Technology Inc, Koppers Company Inc (for the Utility Solid Waste Activities Group, Superfund Committee, Washington, DC).1984. Handbook on manufactured gas plant sites. Pittsburgh, PA: Edison Electric Institute.
[EPA] US Environmental Protection Agency. 1984. Health effects assessment for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Cincinnati, OH: Environmental Protection Agency. EPA Report No. 540/1–86–013.
[EPA] US Environmental Protection Agency. 1985. An exposure and risk assessment for benzo[a]pyrene and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Vol IV. Washington, DC: US Environmental Protection Agency. EPA Report No. 4–85–020–V4.
Garshick E, Schenker MB, Munoz A, Segal M, Smith TJ, Woskie SR, et al. 1987. A case-control study of lung cancer and diesel exhaust exposure in railroad workers. Am Rev Respir Dis 135(6):1242–8.
Garshick E, Schenker MB, Munoz A, Segal M, Smith TJ, Woskie SR, et al. 1988. A retrospective cohort study of lung cancer and diesel exhaust exposure in railroad workers. Am Rev Respir Dis 137(4):820–5.
Georgiadis P, Kyrtopoulos SA. 1999. Molecular epidemiological approaches to the study of the genotoxic effects of urban air pollution. Mut Res 428(1–2):91–8.
Goen T, Gundel J, Schaller KH, Angerer J. 1995. The elimination of 1-hydroxypyrene in the urine of the general population and workers with different occupational exposures to PAH. Sci Total Environ;163(1-3):195–201.
Granella M, Clonfero E. 1993. Urinary excretion of 1-pyrenol in automotive repair workers. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 65:241–5.
Grimmer G. 1968. Carcinogenic hydrocarbons in the human environment. Dtsch Apoth Ztg 108:529.
Gupta P, Banerjee DK, Bhargava SK, Kaul R, Shanker VR. 1991. Prevalence of impaired lung function in rubber manufacturing factory workers exposed to benzo[a]pyrene and respirable particulate matter. Indoor Environ 2:26–31.
Hahon N, Booth JA. 1986. Coinhibition of viral interferon induction by benzo[a]pyrene and chrysotile asbestos. Environ Res 40(1):103–9.
Hammond EC, Selikoff IJ, Lawther PL, Seidman H. 1976. Inhalation of benzpyrene and cancer in man. Ann N Y Acad Sci 271:116–24.
Hansen AM, Wallin H, Binderup ML, Dybdahl M, Autrup H, Loft S, et al. 2004. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene and mutagenicity in bus drivers and mail carriers exposed to urban air pollution in Denmark. Mutat Res;557(1):7–17.
Harris CC, Newman MJ, Weston A, Mann DL. 1986. Identification of human antibodies to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts. Clin Res 34:690A.
Haugen A, Becher G, Benestad C, Vahakangas K, Trivers GE, Newman MJ, et al. 1986. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the urine, benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide-DNA adducts in lymphocyte DNA, and antibodies to the adducts in sera from coke oven workers exposed to measured amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the work atmosphere. Cancer Res 46:4178–83.
Hecht SS. 1999. Tobacco smoke carcinogens and lung cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 91:1194–210.
Hecht SS. 2002. Human urinary carcinogen metabolites: biomarkers for investigating tobacco and cancer. Carcinogenesis 23:907–22.
Hecht SS, el-Bayoumy K, Rivenson A, Amin S. 1994. Potent mammary carcinogenicity in female Cd rats of a fjord region diol-epoxide of benzo[c]phenanthrene compared to a bay region diol-epoxide of benzo[a]pyrene. Cancer Res 54(1):21–4.
Heikkila P, Luotamo M, Pyy L, Riihimaki V. 1995. Urinary 1-naphthol and 1-pyrenol as indicators of exposure to coal tar products. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 67(3):211–7.
Heudorf U, Angerer J. 2001. Urinary monohydroxylated phenanthrenes and hydroxypyrene—the effects of smoking habits and changes induced by smoking on monooxygenase-mediated metabolism. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 74(3):177–83.
Hoffman D., Schmeltz I., Hecht SS, Wynder EL. 1978. Tobacco carcinogenesis. In Gelboin, HS, and Ts’o, POP, editors. Polycyclic hydrocarbons and cancer. New York: Academic Press. Vol. 1. pp 85–117.
[IARC] International Agency for Research on Cancer. 1973. Certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic compounds. Monograph on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks of the chemical to man. Vol. 3. Lyon, France: World Health Organization.
[IPCS] International Programme on Chemical Safety. 1998 Environmental health criteria 202. Selected non-heterocyclic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Geneva: World Health Organization.
Jacob J, Seidel A. 2002. Biomonitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in human urine. J Chromatogr B;778(1–2):31–47.
Jerina DM, Lehr RE, Yagi, et al. 1976. Mutagenicity of B(a)P derivatives and the description of a quantum mechanical model which predicts the ease of carbonium ion formation from diol epoxides. In: deSerres FJ, Foutes JR, Bend JR, et al. eds. In vitro metabolic activation in mutagenesis testing. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier/North Holland. 159–178.
Jerina DM, Sayer JM, Thakker DR, et al. 1980. Carcinogenicity of polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons: The bay-region theory. In: Pullman B, Ts’O POP, Gelboin H, eds. Carcinogenesis: Fundamental mechanisms and environmental effects. Hingham, MA: D. Reidel Publishing Co, 1–12.
Jinot J, Bayard S. 1996. Respiratory health effects of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. Rev Environ Health 11(3):89–100.
Jongeneelen FJ, Bos RP, Anzion RBM, Theuws JL, Henderson PT. 1986. Biological monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: metabolites in urine. Scand J Work Environ Health 12:137–43.
Kapitulnick J, Levin W, Morecki R, Dansette PM, Jerina DM, Conney AH. 1977. Hydration of arene and alkene oxides by epoxide hydrase in human liver microsomes. Clin Pharmacol Ther 21(2):158–65.
Kanoh T, Fukuda M, Onozuka H, Kinouchi T, Ohnishi Y. 1993. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene as a marker of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in environment. Environ Res 62(2):230–41.
Kawamura Y, Kamata E, Ogawa Y, et al. 1988. The effect of various foods on the intestinal absorption of benzo(a)pyrene in rats. J Food Hyg Soc Jpn 29(1):21–5.
Kemena A, Norpoth KH, Jacob J. 1988. Differential induction of the monooxygenase isoenzymes in mouse liver microsomes by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In: Cooke M, Dennis AF, editors. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons: a decade of progress. Proceedings of the tenth international symposium. Columbus, OH: Battelle Press. p. 449–60.
Kennaway E. 1995. The identification of a carcinogenic compound in coal-tar. Br Med J 2:749–52.
Kiefer F, Cumpelik O, Wiebel FJ. 1988. Metabolism and cytotoxicity of benzo[a]pyrene in the human lung tumour cell line NCI-H322. Xenobiotica 18:747–55.
Kjaerheim K. 1999. Occupational cancer research in the Nordic countries. Environ Health Perspect 107(Suppl 2):233–8.
Kuo CT, Chen HW, Chen JL. Determination of 1-hydroxypyrene in children urine using column-switching liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection. J Chromatogr B 2004;805(2):187-93.
Kuusimaki L, Peltonen Y, Mutanen P, Peltonen K, Savela K. Urinary hydroxy-metabolites of naphthalene, phenanthrene and pyrene as markers of exposure to diesel exhaust. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 2004;77(1):23-30.
Lee KH, Ichiba M, Zhang J, Tomokuni K, Hong YC, Ha M, et al. 2003. Multiple biomarkers study in painters in a shipyard in Korea. Mutat Res 540(1):89–98.
Lee ML, Novotny M, Bartle KD. 1976. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometric and nuclear magnetic resonance determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in airborne particulates. Anal Chem 48(11):1566–72.
Lee ML, Novotny M, Bartle KD. 1981. Analytical chemistry of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. New York, NJ: Academic Press.
Levin W, Wood A, Chang RL, Ryan D, Thomas P, Yagi H, et al. 1982. Oxidative metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to ultimate carcinogens. Drug Metab Rev 13:555–80.
Lewtas J, Walsh D, Williams R, Dobias L. 1997. Air pollution exposure-DNA adduct dosimetry in humans and rodents: evidence for non-linearity at high doses. Mut Res 378(1–2):51–63.
Lloyd JW. 1971. Long-term mortality study of steelworkers: V. Respiratory cancer in coke plant workers. J Occup Med 13(2):53–68.
Lu PL, Chen ML, Mao IF. 2002. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene levels in workers exposed to coke oven emissions at various locations in a coke oven plant. Arch Environ Health 57(3):255–61.
Malmgren RA, Bennison BE, McKinley TW Jr. 1952. Reduced antibody titers in mice treated with carcinogenic and cancer chemotherapeutic agents. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 79:484–8.
Mazumdar S, Redmond C, Sollecito W, Sussman N. 1975. An epidemiological study of exposure to coal tar pitch volatiles among coke oven workers. J Air Pollut Cont Assoc 25:382–9.
Menzie CA, Potocki BB, Santodonato J. 1992. Exposure to carcinogenic PAHs in the environment. Environ. Sci. Technol. 26:1278–83.
Merlo F, Andreassen A, Weston A, Pan CF, Haugen A, Valerio F, et al. 1998. Urinary excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene as a marker for exposure to urban air levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 7(2):147–55.
Monteith DK, Novotny A, Michalopoulos G, Strom SC. 1987. Metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene in primary cultures of human hepatocytes: dose-response over a four-log range. Carcinogenesis 8(7):983–8.
Mukherjee S, Palmer LJ, Kim JY, Aeschliman DB, Houk RS, Woodin MA, et al. 2004. Smoking status and occupational exposure affects oxidative DNA injury in boilermakers exposed to metal fume and residual oil fly ash. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 13(3):454–60.
Nelson E. 2001. The miseries of passive smoking. Hum Exp Toxicol 20:61–83.
O’Neill P. 1997. Chemia œrodowiska [Chemistry of the environment]. Warsaw, PL: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.
Phillips DH. 1996. DNA adducts in human tissues: biomarkers of exposure to carcinogens in tobacco smoke. Environ Health Persp 104(Suppl 3):453–8.
Phillips DH. 1999. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the diet. Mut Res 443(1-2):139–47.
Philips FS, Steinberg SS, Marquardt H. 1973. In vivo cytotoxicity of polycyclic hydrocarbons. In: Loomis TA, editor. Pharmacology and the future of man: vol 2. Toxicological problems. Proceedings of the fifth international congress on pharmacology, San Francisco, CA, July 23-28, 1972. New York, NY: Karger. p. 75–88.
Popp W. 1997. DNA single strand breakage, DNA adducts, and sister chromatid exchange in lymphocytes and phenanthrene and pyrene metabolites in urine of coke oven workers. Occup Environ Med 54:176–83.
Redmond CK, Ciocco A, Lloyd JW, Rush HW. 1972. Long-term mortality study of steelworkers: VI. Mortality from malignant neoplasms among coke oven workers. J Occup Med 14:621–29.
Redmond CK, Strobino BR, Cypress RH. 1976. Cancer experience among coke byproduct workers. Ann N Y Acad Sci 271:102–15.
Robinson JR, Felton JS, Levitt RC, Thorgeirsson SS, Nebert DW. 1975. Relationship between “aromatic hydrocarbon responsiveness” and the survival times in mice treated with various drugs and environmental compounds. Mol Pharmacol 11(6):850–65.
Roggi C, Minoia C, Sciarra GF, Apostoli P, Maccarini L, Magnaghi S, et al. 1997. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene as a marker of exposure to pyrene: an epidemiological survey on a general population group. Sci Total Environ;199(3):247–54.
Rom WN. 1998. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In: Rom W, ed. Environmental and occupational medicine. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott-Raven. p. 1261–7.
Ronai ZA, Gradia S, el-Bayoumy K, Amin S, Hecht SS. 1994. Contrasting incidence of ras mutations in rat mammary and mouse skin tumors. Carcinogenesis 15(10):2113–6.
Ross J, Nelson G, Erexson G, Kligerman A, Earley K, Gupta RC, et. al. 1991. DNA adducts in rat lung, liver and peripheral blood lymphocytes produced by i.p. administration of benzo[a]pyrene metabolites and derivatives. Carcinogenesis 12(10):1953–5.
Samet JM. 1995. What can we expect from epidemiologic studies of chemical mixtures? Toxicology 105:307–14.
Santella RM, Hemminki K, Tang D-L, Paik M, Ottman R, Young TL, et al. 1993. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts in white blood cells and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene in foundry workers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2(1):59–62.
Scheepers PT, Coggon D, Knudsen LE, Anzion R, Autrup H, Bogovski S, et al. 2002. Biomarkers for occupational diesel exhaust exposure monitoring (BIOMODEM)—a study in underground mining. Toxicol Lett 134(1-3):305–17.
Serdar B, Waidyanatha S, Zheng Y, Rappaport SM. 2003. Simultaneous determination of urinary 1- and 2-naphthols, 3-and 9-phenanthrols, and 1-pyrenol in coke oven workers. Biomarkers 8(2):93–109.
Seto H. 1993. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the lung. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 24:498–503.
Shabad LM, Cohan YL. 1972. Contents of benzo[a]pyrene in some crops. Arch Geschwulstforsch 40:237–43.
Siwinska E, Mielzynska D, Bubak A, Smolik E. 1999. The effect of coal stoves and environmental tobacco smoke on the level of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene. Mutat Res 445(2):147–53.
Siwinska E, Mielzynska D, Kapka L. 2004. Association between urinary 1-hydroxypyrene and genotoxic effects in coke oven workers. Occup Environ Med 61(3):e10.
Skupinska K, Misiewicz I, Kasprzycka-Guttman T. 2004. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: physiochemical properties, environmental appearance and impact on living organisms. Acta Pol Pharm 61(3):233–40.
Steenland K, Silverman DT, Hornung RW. 1990. Case-control study of lung cancer and truck driving in the Teamsters Union. Am J Public Health 80:670–74.
Steenland K, Silverman DT, Zebst D. 1992. Exposure to diesel exhaust in the trucking industry and possible relationships with lung cancer. Am J Ind Med 21:887–90.
Sullivan JB, Krieger GR, eds. 2001. Clinical environmental health and toxic exposures. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 1241.
Szczeklik A, Szczeklik J, Galuszcka Z, Musial J, Kolarzyk E, Tarqosz D. 1994. Humoral immunosuppression in men exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and related carcinogens in polluted environments. Environ Health Perspect 102(3):302–4.
Tsai HT, Wu MT, Hauser R, Rodrigues E, Ho CK, Liu CL, et al. 2003. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene levels in preschool children. Kaohsiung J Med Sci 19(3):97–104.
Tsai PJ, Shih TS, Chen HL, Lee WJ, Lai CH, Liou SH. 2004. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene as an indicator for assessing the exposures of booth attendants of a highway toll station to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Environ Sci Technol 38(1):56–61.
Van Rooij JGM, Van Lieshout EMA, Bodelier-Bade MM, Jongeneelen FJ. 1993. Effect of the reduction of skin contamination on the internal dose of creosote workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Scan J Work Environ Health 19(3):200–7.
Van Schooten F-J. 1996. Coal tar therapy: is it carcinogenic? Drug Safety 6 :374–7.
Weis LM. 1998. Bay or baylike regions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were potent inhibitors of gap junctional intercellular communication. Environ Health Perspect 106:17–22.
Weyand EH, La Voie EJ. 1988. Comparison of PAH: DNA adduct formation and tumor initiating activity in newborn mice. Proc Annu Meet Am Assoc Cancer Res 29:A390(abst).
Yang M, Kim S, Lee E, Cheong HK, Chang SS, Kang D, et al. 2003. Sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure in nonoccupationally exposed Koreans. Environ Mol Mutagen;42(4):250–7.
Yasuhira K. 1964. Damage to the thymus and other lymphoid tissues from 3-methylcholanthrene, and subsequent thymoma production, in mice. Cancer Res 24:558–69.
Zedeck MS. 1980. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: a review. J Environ Pathol Toxicol 3:537–67.
Zhao XL. 1990. Effects of benzo[a]pyrene on the humoral immunity of mice exposed by single intraperitoneal injection. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi [Chin J Prevent Med] 24(4):220–2.
Zmirou D, Masclet P, Boudet C, Dor F, Dechenaux J. 2000. Personal exposure to atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a general adult population and lung cancer risk assessment. J Occup Environ Med 42:121–6.