Assessment and Posttest Instructions
There may be more than one correct answer per question.
- Other names for PAHs include which of the following?
- Polynuclear aromatics (PNAs).
- Polynuclear hydrocarbons.
- Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons.
- Polycyclic organic matter (POM).
- Which of the following statements regarding PAHs is (are) true?
- Heavier PAHs (more than 4 rings) tend to adsorb to particulate matter.
- Lighter PAHs (less than 4 rings) tend to remain gaseous until removed via precipitation.
- PAH concentration in water tends to be low (around 100 ng/l) due to their weak solubility.
- PAHs can be absorbed by plants.
- PAHs mostly accumulate in soil.
- Potential sources of PAH exposure include
- Passive inhalation of cigarette smoke.
- Motor vehicle exhaust.
- Alcoholic beverages.
- Inhalation of paint vapors in poorly ventilated area.
- Wood stoves for home heating.
- Which of the following statements regarding PAHs are false?
- PAHs are found only in a small number of industrial settings.
- PAHs mostly accumulate in soils.
- Benzo[a]pyrene is generally used as an environmental indicator for PAHs.
- Most PAHs in ambient air are the result of man-made processes.
- In non-occupational settings, the majority of PAH exposure in a nonsmoking individual comes from which of the following?
- Foodstuff ingestion.
- Inhalation route.
- Dermal route.
- Persons with potentially increased PAH exposure include
- Coke oven workers.
- Roofing asphalt applicators.
- Chimney sweeps.
- Breastfeeding mothers.
- Which of the following statements are true about PAHs?
- Exposure is most often determined based on patient history.
- Direct assays in the body are not clinically useful.
- Exposure can cause pancreatitis.
- Acute exposure can cause convulsions or unexplained loss of consciousness.
- The prognosis for most acutely exposed patients is poor.
- Which of the following statements regarding OSHA’s standards for PAHs is/are false?
- OSHA requires workers who are exposed to PAH above the PEL to be under medical surveillance.
- OSHA requires all workers to be trained in proper use of appropriate personal protective equipment and safety.
- Purchase of personal protective equipment is the responsibility of individual employees.
- The OSHA PEL is a legally enforceable standard.
- Which of the following statements regarding PAHs in water is/are true?
- The EPA maximum contaminant level is a legally enforceable standard.
- The maximum contaminant level is an 8-hour time-weighted average.
- EPA has set maximum contaminant levels for PAHs in foodstuffs.
- EPA developed ambient water quality criteria to protect human health from the carcinogenic effects of PAH exposure.
- Which of the following regarding the biologic fate of PAHs in the body are true?
- PAHs are metabolized in a number of organs and excreted in bile and urine.
- Information on the absorption, distribution, and elimination of PAHs in the human body is derived primarily from animal studies.
- Generally, PAHs bound to airborne particulate matter are not absorbed as well in the lungs as the same dose of PAHs that are unbound to particulate matter.
- The liver P-450 mixed-function oxidase system is the predominant mechanism of PAH metabolism.
- 1-Hydroxypryrene is a commonly measured urine metabolite for PAH exposure.
- The following signs and symptoms can be found in patients chronically exposed to PAHs
- Cutaneous photosensitization.
- The mechanism of PAH-induced carcinogenesis is believed to be which of the following?
- Covalent binding of PAH metabolites to DNA.
- Generation of active oxygen species.
- Cell-mediated inflammatory mechanisms.
- All of the above.
- Reported health effects associated with chronic exposure to coal tar and its by-products (e.g., PAH) include
- Warts on sun-exposed areas of the skin, with progression to cancer.
- Irritation of the eyes.
- Bronchogenic cancer.
- In the treatment of patients with PAH exposure, which of the following is/are true?
- Education and future avoidance of exposure are important.
- Continued use of tobacco products should be discouraged.
- Treatment of acute exposure is largely symptomatic.
- The specific PAH should be determined so that an antidote can be prescribed.
- A fat biopsy is integral to medical surveillance of PAH-exposed patients.
- Which of the following should be included in the differential diagnosis of a patient suffering from the chronic effects of PAH exposure?
- Hepatic angiosarcoma.
- Lung abscess.
- Regarding PAH distribution, metabolism, and excretion, which are true?
- The liver and kidney are both involved in metabolism.
- Binding of PAH metabolites to DNA is believed to be the mechanism of PAH-induced carcinogenesis.
- Metabolized PAHs cannot be eliminated by hepatobiliary excretion.
- Excretion is through bile and urine.
- Calcium EDTA chelation enhances PAH excretion.
- Which of the following statements is (are) true?
- Management of a worker exposed to PAHs includes bone marrow aspiration.
- PAH metabolites can cross the placental barrier.
- Acutely exposed skin should be decontaminated by gently scrubbing with a 10% iodine solution.
- Hair analysis can reveal past PAH exposure.
- The bay region theory attempts to explain why PAHs are found in bay waters.
- What steps can patients take to reduce the risk of overexposure to PAHs?
- Minimize hobby and recreational PAH exposures.
- Avoid exposure to all forms of smoke.
- Stop smoking.
- Minimize dietary PAH exposure.
- All of the above.
To review content relevant to the posttest questions, see:
|Question||Location of Relevant Content|
|1||What are PAHs?|
|2||What are PAHs?
Where are PAHs found?
|3||Where are PAHs found?|
|4||Where are PAHs found?|
|5||What are routes of exposure for PAHs?|
|6||Who is at risk of PAH exposure?|
|8||What are standards and regulations for PAH exposure?|
|9||What are standards and regulations for PAH exposure?|
|10||What is the biologic fate of PAHs in the body?|
|12||How do PAHs induce pathogenic changes?|
|13||What health effects are associated with PAH exposure?|
|14||How should patients exposed to PAHs be treated and managed?|
|16||What is the biologic fate of PAHs?
How do PAHs induce pathogenic changes?
|17||What are routes of exposure for PAHs?|
|18||What instructions should be given to patients exposed to PAHs?|