Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to navigation Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options

Summary Report Hair Analysis Panel Discussion Exploring The State Of The Science

Hair Analysis Panel Discussion: Appendix D

Historical Document

This Web site is provided by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) ONLY as an historical reference for the public health community. It is no longer being maintained and the data it contains may no longer be current and/or accurate.

Appendix D
Hair Analysis: Bibliography

Abugassa I, Sarmani SB, Samat SB. Multi element analysis of human hair and kidney stones by instrumental neutron activation analysis with the ko-standardization method. Appl Rad Isotopes. 1999; 50:989-94.

Aharoni A, Tesler B, Paltieli Y, Tal JH, Dori Z, Sharf M. Hair chromium content of women with gestational diabetes compared with nondiabetic pregnant women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1992; 55:104-7.

Ahmed AF, Elmubarak AH. Lead and cadmium in human hair: a comparison among four countries. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 1990 Jul; 45(1):139-48.

Airey D. Total mercury concentrations in human hair from 13 countries in relation to fish consumption and location. Sci Tot Environ. 1983; 31:157-80.

Al-Delaimy W et al. Nicotine in hair of bar and restaurant workers. N Z Med J. 2001 Mar 9;114(1127):80-3.

Anderson RA et al. Designing a biological monitoring program to assess community exposure to chromium: conclusions of an expert panel. J Toxicol Environ Health. 1993; 40:555-83.

Ashraf W, Jaffar M, Mohammad D. Trace metal contamination study on scalp hair of occupationally exposed workers. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 1994 Oct; 53(4):516-23.

Ashraf W, Jaffar M, Mohammad D. Age and sex dependence of selected trace metals in scalp hair of urban population of Pakistan. Sci Total Environ. 1994 Jul 18; 151(3):227-33.

Assarian GS, Oberleas D. Clin Chem. 1997; 23:1771-2.

Atalla L, Silva CM, Lima FW. Activation analysis of arsenic in human hair - some observations on the problems of external contamination. Ann Acad Bras Cien. 1965; 37:432-41.

Attar KM, Abdel-Aal MA, Debayle P. Distribution of trace elements in the lipid and nonlipid matter of hair. Clin Chem. 1990 Mar; 36(3):477-80.

Aufreiter S, Hancock RGV. Pigmentation and temporal effects on trace elements in hair. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1990; 26-27:721-8.

Bache CA, Lisk DJ, Scarlett JM, Carbone LG. Epidemiologic study of cadmium and lead in the hair of ceramists and dental personnel. J Toxicol Environ Health. 1991 Dec; 34(4):423-31.

Bader M, Dietz MC, Ihrig A, Triebig G. Biomonitoring of manganese in blood, urine and axillary hair following low-dose exposure during the manufacture of dry cell batteries. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 1999 Nov; 72(8):521-7.

Barbosa AC, Silva SR, Dorea JG. Concentration of mercury in hair of indigenous mothers and infants from the Amazon basin. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 1998 Jan; 34(1):100-5.

Barrett, S. Commercial hair analysis - science or scam? JAMA. 1985 Aug 23/30; 254(8):1041-5.

Bate LC. Adsorption and elution of trace elements on human hair. Int J Appl Rad Isot. 1966; 17:417-23.

Batzevich VA. Hair trace element analysis in human ecology studies. Sci Total Environ. 1995 Mar 15; 164(2):89-98.

Baumgartner WA, Hill VA, Blahd WH. Journal of Forensic Sciences. 1989; 34:1433-52.

Bencko V. Use of human hair as a biomarker in the assessment of exposure to pollutants in occupational and environmental settings. Toxicology. 1995 Jul 26; 101(1-2):29-39. Review.

Bencko V, Geist T, Arbetova D, Dharmadikari DM, Svandova E. Biological monitoring of environmental pollution and human exposure to some trace elements. J Hyg Epidemiol Microbiol Immunol. 1986; 30(1):1-10.

Bencko V, Symon K. Health aspects of burning coal with a high arsenic content. I. Arsenic in hair, urine, and blood in children residing in a polluted area. Environ Res. 1977; 13:378-85.

Bermejo-Barrera P, Moreda-Pineiro A, Romero-Barbeito T, Moreda-Pineiro J, Bermejo-Barrera A. Traces of cadmium in human scalp hair measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with the slurry sampling technique. Clin Chem. 1996 Aug; 42(8 Pt 1):1287-8.

Bermejo-Barrera P, Muniz-Naveiro O, Moreda-Pineiro A, Bermejo-Barrera A. Experimental designs in the optimization of ultrasonic bath-acid leaching procedures for the determination of trace elements in human hair samples by atomic absorption spectrometry. Foren Sci Intl. 2000; 107:105-20.

Boischio AAP, Cernichiari E. Longitudinal hair mercury concentration in riverside mothers along the Upper Madeira river (Brazil). Environ Res. 1998 May; 77(2):79-83.

Bos AJ, van der Stap CC, Valkovic V, Vis RD, Verheul H. Incorporation routes of elements into human hair; implications for hair analysis used for monitoring. Sci Total Environ. 1985 Mar 15; 42(1-2):157-69.

Bosque MA, Domingo JL, Llobet JM, Corbella J. Cadmium in hair of school children living in Tarragona Province, Spain. Relationship to age, sex, and environmental factors. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1991 Feb; 28(2):147-55.

Buckley RA, Dreosoti IE. Am J Clin Nutr. 1984; 50:840-6.

Burguera JL, Burguera M, Rondon CE, Rivas C, Burguera JA, Alarcon OM. Determination of lead in hair of exposed gas station workers and in unexposed adults by microwave-aided dissolution of samples and flow injection/atomic absorption spectrometry. J Trace Elem Electrolytes Health Dis. 1987 Sep; 1(1):21-6.

Bustueva KA, Revich BA, Bezpalko LE. Cadmium in the environment of three Russian cities and in human hair and urine. Arch Environ Health. 1994 Jul-Aug; 49(4):284-8.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Blood and hair mercury levels in young children and women of childbearing age—United States, 1999. MMWR Weekly. 2001 Mar 2; 50(8):140-3. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5008a2.htm

Cernichiari E, Brewer R, Myers GJ, Marsh DO, Lapham LW, Cox C, Shamlaye CF, Berlin M, Davidson PW, Clarkson TW. Monitoring methylmercury during pregnancy: maternal hair predicts fetal brain exposure. Neurotoxicology. 1995 Winter; 16(4):705-10.

Cernichiari E, Toribara TY, Liang L, Marsh DO, Berlin MW, Myers GJ, Cox C, Shamlaye CF, Choisy O, Davidson P, et al. The biological monitoring of mercury in the Seychelles study. Neurotoxicology. 1995 Winter; 16(4):613-28.

Chappuis P, deVernejoul M, Paolaggi F, Rousselet F. Relationship between hair, serum and bone aluminum in hemodialyzed patients. Clin Chim Act. 1989; 179:271-8.

Chatt A, Holzbecher J, Katz SA. Metabolic deposition of selenium and cadmium into the hair and other tissues of the guinea pig. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1990 Jul-Dec; 26-27:513-9.

Chattopadhyay PK, Joshi HC, Samaddar KR. Hair cadmium level of smoker and non-smoker human volunteers in and around Calcutta City. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 1990 Aug; 45(2):177-80.

Chittleborough G. A chemist's view of the analysis of human hair for trace elements. Sci Total Environ. 1980; 14:53-75.

Chittleborough G, Steel BJ. Is human hair a dosimeter for endogenous zinc and other trace elements? Sci Total Environ. 1980; 15:25-35.

Chlopicka J, Zachwieja Z, Zagrodzki P, Frydrych J, Slota P, Krosniak M. Lead and cadmium in the hair and blood of children from a highly industrial area in Poland. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1998 Jun; 62(3):229-34.

Chlopicka J, Zagrodzki P, Zachwieja Z, Krosniak M, Folta M. Use of pattern recognition methods in the interpretation of heavy metal (lead and cadmium) in children's scalp hair. Analyst. 1995 Mar; 120(3):943-5.

Chowdhury UK, Biswas BK, Chowdhury TR, Samanta G, Mandal BK, Basu GC, Chanda CR, Lodh D, Saha KC, Mukherjee SK, Roy S, Kabir S, Quamruzzaman Q, Chakraborti D. Groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh and West Bengal, India. Environ Health Perspect. 2000; 108:393-7.

Clarkson TW. The role of biomarkers in reproductive and developmental toxicology. Environ Health Perspect. 1987 Oct; 74:103-7.

Clarkson TW. The toxicology of mercury. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci. 1997; 34(4):369-403.

Contiera E, Folin M. Trace elements nutritional status. Use of hair as a diagnostic tool. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1994; 40:151-60.

Cordova EJ, Crinella FM, Ericosn JE. High hair manganese in children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Unpublished study. Address: FM Crinella, UC Irvine, Child Development Center, 19722 MacArthur Blvd., Irvine, CA 92612.

Cornelis R, Speecke A. Neutron activation analysis of human hair collected at regular intervals for 25 years. J Forensic Sci Soc. 1971; 11(1):29-46.

Cornelis R. Neutron activation analysis of hair: failure of a mission. J Radioanal Chem. 1973; 15:305-16.

Cox C, Clarkson TW, Marsh DO, Amin-Zaki L, Tikriti S, Myers GG. Dose-response analysis of infants prenatally exposed to methyl mercury: an application of a single compartment model to single-strand hair analysis. Environ Res. 1989 Aug; 49(2):318-32.

Curry AS, Pounds CA. Arsenic in hair. J For Sci Soc. 1977; 17:37-44.

Davies S, Howard JM, Hunnisett A, Howard M. Age-related decreases in chromium levels in 51,665 hair, sweat, and serum samples from 40,872 patients-implications for the prevention of cardiovascular disease and Type II Diabetes Mellitus. Metabolism. 1997; 46:469-73.

DeAntonio SM, Katz SA, Scheiner DM, Wood JD. Anatomically-related variations in trace-metal concentrations in hair. Clin Chem. 1982; 28:2411-3.

Deening SB, Wever CW. Hair analysis of trace minerals in human subjects as influenced by age, sex, and contraceptive drug. Am J Clin Nutr. 1978; 31:1175-80.

Delves HT. Assessment of trace element status. Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1985; 14:725-60.

de Peyster A, Silvers JA. Arsenic levels in hair of workers in a semiconductor fabrication facility. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J. 1995 Apr; 56(4):377-83.

DiPietro ES, Phillips DL, Paschal DC, Neese JW. Determination of trace elements in human hair. Reference intervals for 28 elements in nonoccupationally exposed adults in the US and effects of hair treatments. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1989 Oct; 22(1):83-100.

Doi R, Raghupathy L, Ohno H, Naganuma A, Imura N, Harada M. A study of the sources of external metal contamination of hair. Sci Tot Environ. 1988; 77:153-61.

Druyan ME, Bass D, Puchyr R, Urek K, Quig DW. Determination of reference ranges for elements in human scalp hair. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1998; 62(3):183-97.

Du Y, Mangelson NF, Rees LB, Matheny RT. PIXE elemental analysis of South American mummy hair. Nucl Instru Meth Phys Res B. 1996.

Ellis KJ, Yasumura S, Cohn SH. Hair cadmium content: is it biological indicator of the body burden of cadmium for the occupationally exposed worker? Am J Ind Med. 1981; 2:323-30.

Eltayeb MA, Van Grieken RE. Iron, copper, zinc and lead in hair from Sudanese populations of different age groups. Sci Total Environ. 1990 Jun; 95:157-65.

Esteban E, Rubin CH, Jones RL, Noonan G. Hair and blood as substrates for screening children for lead poisoning. Arch Environ Health. 1999 Nov-Dec; 54(6):436-40.

Fan AM, Chang LW. Human exposure and biological monitoring of methylmercury and selenium. In: Dillon HK, Ho MH, ed. Biological Monitoring of Exposure to Chemicals: Metals. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons; 1991:223-41.

Feng Q, Suzuki Y, Hisashige A. Trace element contents in hair of residents from Harbin (China), Medan (Indonesia), and Tokushima (Japan). Biol Trace Elem Res. 1997 Winter; 59(1-3):75-86.

Ferguson JE, Holzbecher J, Ryan DE. The sorption of copper [II], manganese [II], zinc [II], and arsenic [III] into human hair and their desorption. Sci Tot Environ. 1983; 26:121-35.

Fletcher DJ. Hair analysis: proven and problematic applications. Postgraduate Medicine. 1982 Nov; 72(5):79-88.

Folin M, Contiero E, Vaselli GM. Trace element determination in humans. The use of blood and hair. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1991; 31:147-58.

Foo SC, Khoo NY, Heng A, Chua LH, Chia SE, Ong CN, Ngim CH, Jeyaratnam J. Metals in hair as biological indices for exposure. Int Arch Occup Environ Hlth. 1993; 65:S83-S86.

Frery N, Girard F, Moreau T, Blot P, Sahuquillo J, Hajem S, Orssaud G, Huel G. Validity of hair cadmium in detecting chronic cadmium exposure in general populations. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 1993 May; 50(5):736-43.

Gaillard Y, Pepin G. Testing hair for pharmaceuticals. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl. 1999; 733(1-2):231-46.

Gebel TW, Suchenwirth RHR, Bolten C et al. Human biomonitoring of arsenic and antimony in case of an elevated geogenic exposure. Environ Health Persp. 1998; 106:33-9.

Gerhardsson L, Skerfving S. Concepts on biological markers and biomonitoring for metal toxicity. In: Change LW, ed. Toxicology of Metals. New York, NY: Lewis Publishers; 1966:81-107.

Gibson RS, Skeaff M, Williams S. Interrelationship of indices of body composition and zinc status in 11-yr-old New Zealand children. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2000; 75:65-77.

Golow AA, Kwaansa-Ansah EE. Comparison of lead and zinc levels in the hair of pupils from four towns in the Kumasi municipal area of Ghana. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 1994 Sep; 53(3):325-31.

Grandjean P. Lead poisoning: hair analysis shows the calendar of events. Hum Toxicol. 1984 Jun; 3(3):223-8.

Grandjean P, Budtz-Jorgensen E, White RF, Jorgensen PJ, Weihe P, Debes F, Keiding N. Methylmercury exposure biomarkers as indicators of neurotoxicity in children aged 7 years. Am J Epidemiol. 1999 Aug 1; 150(3):301-5.

Greenwood MR, Dhahir P, Clarkson TW, Farant JP, Chatrand A, Khayat A. J Analyt Toxicol. 1977; 1:265.

Guidotti TL, Audette RJ, Martin CJ. Interpretation of the trace metal analysis profile for patients occupationally exposed to metals. Occup Med (Lond). 1997 Nov; 47(8):497-503.

Hac E, Krechniak J. Lead levels in bone and hair of rats treated with lead acetate. Biol Trace Elem Res 1996; 52:293-301.

Hac E, Krechniak J. Mercury concentrations in hair exposed in vitro to mercury vapor. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1993 Nov-Dec; 39(2-3):109-15.

Hac E, Krzyzanowski M, Krechniak J. Cadmium content in human kidney and hair in the Gdansk region. Sci Total Environ. 1998 Dec 11; 224(1-3):81-5.

Hambidge KM. Hair analysis: proven and problematic applications. Postgraduate Medicine, 1982; 72(5):79-81, 84, 87-8.

Hambidge KM. Hair analyses: worthless for vitamins, limited for minerals. Am J Clin Nutr. 1982; 36(5):943-9.

Harada M et al. Monitoring of mercury pollution in Tanzania: relation between head hair mercury and health. Sci Total Environ. 1999 Mar 9; 227(2-3):249-56.

Haraguchi H, Fujimori E, Inagaki K. Trace element analysis of biological samples by analytical atomic spectroscopy. In: Armstrong D, ed. Methods in Molecular Biology, Vol 108. Towata, NJ: Humana Press; 1998:389-411.

Harkey MR. Anatomy and physiology of hair. Forensic Sci Int. 1993 Dec; 63(1-3):9-18.

Harrington, JM, Middaugh JP, Morse DL et al. A survey of a population exposed to high concentrations of arsenic in well water in Fairbanks, Alaska. Am J Epid. 1978; 108(5):377-85.

Hartwell TD, Handy RW, Harris BS et al. Heavy metal exposure in populations living around zinc and copper smelters. Arch Environ Health. 1983; 38(5):284-95.

Hauser G, Vienna A, Wolfsperger M, Goessler W. Milk consumption, smoking and lead concentration in human hair. Coll Antropol. 1999 Dec; 23(2):433-6.

Henke G, Nucci A, Queiroz LS: Detection of repeated arsenical poisoning by neutron activation analysis of foot nail segments. Arch Toxicol. 1982; 50:125-31.

Hewitt DJ, Millner GC, Nye AC et al. Investigation of arsenic exposure from soil at a Superfund site. Environ Research. 1995; 68:73-81.

Hindmarsh JT, Dekerkhove D, Grime G, Powell J. Hair arsenic as an index of toxicity. Arsenic Exposure and Health Effects, Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Arsenic Exposure and Health Effects, July 12-15, 1998, San Diego, CA. 1999; 1st ed:41-49.

Hoffmann K, Becker K, Friedrich C, Helm D, Krause C, Seifert B. The German Environmental Survey 1990/1992 (GerES II): cadmium in blood, urine and hair of adults and children. J Exp Anal Environ Epi. 2000 Mar-Apr; 10(2):126-35.

Holde et al. Quantitation of cocaine in human hair: the effect of centrifugation of hair digests. J Anal Toxicol. 1998 Oct; 22(6):414-7.

Hopps HC. The biological bases for using hair and nail for analysis of trace elements. Sci Total Environ. 1977; 7:71-89.

Horvat M. Current status and future needs for biological and environmental reference materials certified for methylmercury compounds. Chemosphere. 1999; 39:1167-79.

Houtman, JPW, de Bruin M, de Goeij JIM: Arsenic levels of human hair as an indicator for environmental exposure. In: Nuclear Activation Techniques in the Life Sciences. Vienna, IAEA, 1978; 599-614.

Hubbard D et al. Society of Forensic Toxicologists meeting, Snowbird, UT. 2000.

Huel G, Everson RB, Menger I. Increased hair cadmium in newborns of women occupationally exposed to heavy metals. Environ Res. 1984 Oct; 35(1):115-21.

Hwang SG, Chang JM, Lee SC, Tsai JH, Lai YH. Short- and long-term uses of calcium acetate do not change hair and serum zinc concentrations in hemodialysis patients. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 1999; 59:83-8.

Iyengar GV. Reference values for elemental concentrations in some human samples of clinical interest: a preliminary evaluation. Sci Total Environ. 1984; 38:125-31.

Iyengar V, Woittiez J. Trace elements in human clinical specimens: evaluation of literature data to identify reference values. Clin Chem. 1988; 34:474-81.

Jacobs RM. Techniques employed for the assessment of metals in biological systems. In: Change LW, ed. Toxicology of Metals. New York, NW: Lewis Publishers; 1996:81-107.

Jervis RE, Present status of activation analysis applications in criminalistics. Isot Rad Tech. 1968; 6(1):57-70.

Kalman DA, Hughes J, van Belle G, Burbacher T, Bolgiano D, Coble KL, Mottet NK, and Polissar L. Distribution of urinary arsenic species for individuals living in an arsenic-contaminated community. Environ Health Perspect. 1990; 89:145-51.

Katz SA, Katz RB. Use of hair analysis for evaluating mercury intoxication of the human body: a review. J Appl Toxicol. 1992 Apr; 12(2):79-84. Review.

Kidwell DA, Lee EH, DeLauder SF. Evidence for bias in hair testing and procedures to correct bias. Forensic Sci Int. 2000; 107(1-3):39-61.

Kirschmann G. J Nutrition Almanac, 4th ed. New York: McGraw Hill. 1996.

Kist AA, Zhuk LI, Danilova EA, Mikholskaya IN. Mapping of ecologically unfavorable territories based on human hair composition. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1998 Summer; 64(1-3):1-12.

Klevay LM, Bistrian BR, Fleming CR, Neumann CG. Hair analysis in clinical and experimental medicine. Am J Clin Nutr. 1987 Aug; 46(2):233-6. Review.

Kollmer WE. Cadmium in induced hair of the rat and its relation to the level in the diet and in the major organs during long-term exposure to cadmium in the subtoxic and toxic range. J Trace Elem Electrolytes Health Dis. 1991 Sep; 5(3):165-71.

Koons RD, Peters CA. Axial distribution of arsenic in individual human hairs by solid sampling graphite furnace AAS. J Anal Toxicol. 1994; 18:36-40.

Koren G. Measurement of drugs in neonatal hair; a window to fetal exposure. Forensic Sci Int. 1995 Jan 5; 70(1-3):77-82. Review.

Krechniak J. Mercury concentrations in hair exposed in vitro to mercury vapor. Bio Tr Elem Res. 1993; 39:109-15.

Kurttio P, Komulainen H, Hakala E, Kahelin H, Pekkanen J. Urinary excretion of arsenic species after exposure to arsenic present in drinking water. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 1998; 34:297-305.

Kvicala J, Vaclav J. INAA of serum zinc of inhabitants in five regions of the Czech Republic. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1999; 71-72:21-30.

Kyle JH, Ghani N. Methylmercury in human hair: a study of a Papua New Guinean population exposed to methylmercury through fish consumption. Arch Environ Health. 1982 Sep-Oct; 37(5):266-71.

Lamand M, Faviert A, Pineau A. La détermination des oligoéléments dans les poils et dans les cheveux: intérêt et limites. Annales de Biologie Clinique. 1990; 48:433-42.

Larrson B. Interaction between chemicals and melanin. Pigment Cell Res. 1993; 6:127-33.

LeBlanc A, Dumas P, Lefebvre L. Trace element content of commercial shampoos: impact on trace elements in hair. Sci Tot Environ. 1999; 229:121-4.

Lee WC, Lee MJ. Mercury concentrations in scalp hair as an environmental contamination index from foods in Korea. Vet Hum Toxicol. 1999 Dec; 41(6):373-5.

Lekouch N, Sedki A, Bouhouch S, Nejmeddine A, Pineau A, Pihan JC. Trace elements in children's hair, as related exposure in wastewater spreading field of Marrakesh (Morocco). Sci Total Environ. 1999 Dec 15; 243-244:323-8.

Leslie ACD, Smith H: Napoleon Bonaparte's exposure to arsenic during 1816. Arch Toxicol. 1978; 41:163-7.

Lin T, Huang Y. Arsenic species in drinking water, hair, fingernails, and urine of patients with blackfoot disease. J Tox Environ Hlth. 1998; 53:85-93.

Lind B, Bigras L, Cernichiari E, Clarkson TW, Friberg L, Hellman M, Kennedy P, Kirkbride J, Kjellstrom T, Olin B. Quality control of analyses of mercury in hair. Fresenius Z Anal Chem. 1988; 332:620-2.

Maes D, Pate BD. The absorption of arsenic into single human head hairs. J For Sci. 1977; 22:89-99.

Magos L, Berg GG. Selenium. In: Clarkson TW, Friberg L, Nordberg GF, Sager PR, eds. Biological Monitoring of Toxic Metals. New York, NY: Plenum Press; 1988:383-405.

Maksimovic ZJ, Djujic I, Jovic V, Rsumovic M. Selenium deficiency in Yugoslavia. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1992; 33:187-96.

Mandal BK, Chowdhury TR, Samanta G, Mukherjee DP, Chanda CR, Saha KC, Chakroborti D. Impact of safe water for drinking and cooking on five arsenic-affected families for 2 years in West Bengal, India. Sci Tot Environ. 1998; 218:185-201.

Manson P, Zlotkin S. Hair analysis—a critical review. Can Med Assoc J. 1985 Aug 1; 133:186-8. Editorial.

Marriott BM, Smith JC Jr, Jacobs RM, Jones AO, Altman JD. Copper, iron, manganese, and zinc content of hair from two populations of rhesus monkeys. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1996 Summer; 53(1-3):167-83.

Marsh DO, Clarkson TW, Cox C, Myers GJ, Amin-Zaki L, Al-Tikriti S. Fetal methylmercury poisoning. Relationship between concentration in single strands of maternal hair and child effects. Arch Neurol. 1987 Oct; 44(10):1017-22.

Marsh DO, Myers GJ, Clarkson TW. Dose-response relationship for human fetal exposure to methylmercury. Clin Toxicol. 1981; 18:1311-8.

Matsubara J, Machida K. Significance of elemental analysis of hair as a means of detecting environmental pollution. Environ Res. 1985 Dec; 38(2):225-38.

McClean S, O'Kane E, Coulter D, McLean S, Smyth WF. Capillary electrophoretic determination of trace metals in hair samples and its comparison with high performance liquid chromatography and atomic absorption techniques. Electrophoresis. 1998; 19:11-8.

McKenzie JM. Alteration of the zinc and copper concentration of hair. Am J Clin Nutr. 1978; 31:470-6.

Medeiros DM, Pellum LK. Blood pressure and hair cadmium, lead, copper, and zinc concentrations in Mississippi adolescents. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 1985 Feb; 34(2):163-9.

Meng Z. Age- and sex-related differences in zinc and lead levels in human hair. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1998 Jan; 61(1):79-87.

Mertz W. Confirmation: chromium levels in serum, hair and sweat decline with age. Nutr Rev. 1997; 55(10):373-5.

Meyer N, Helynick B, Ledrans M, Le Goaster C, Kintz P, Michel A. Evaluation de l'impregnation biologique d'une population exposee a une concentration elevee en arsenic dans les eaux de distribution, Ferrette, 1997. Rev Epidem et Sante Publ. 1999; 47:315-21.

Miekeley N, Dias Carneiro MTW, Porta da Silveira CL. How reliable are human hair reference intervals for trace elements? Sci Total Environ. 1998; 218:9-17.

Mikasa H, Suzuki Y, Fujii N, Nishiyama K. Adsorption and elution of metals on hair. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1988 Jun; 16(1):59-66.

Miyake B. A genetic electrophoretic variant of high-sulfur hair proteins for forensic hair comparisons. II. Practical application of electrophoretic analysis of hair protein to forensic hair comparisons. Nippon Hoigaku Zasshi. 1989 Feb; 43(1):9-15.

Moon J, Smith TJ, Tamaro S, Enarson D, Fadl S, Davison AJ, Weldon L. Trace metals in scalp hair of children and adults in three Alberta Indian villages. Sci Total Environ. 1986 Oct; 54:107-25.

Moro R, Gialanella G, Zhang YX, Perrone L, Di Toro R. Trace elements in full-term neonate hair. J Trace Elem Electrolytes Health Dis. 1992 Mar; 6(1):27-31.

Mottet NK, Body RL, Wilkens V, Burbacher TM. Biologic variables in the hair uptake of methylmercury from blood in the macaque monkey. Environ Res. 1987 Apr; 42(2):509-23.

National Research Council. Toxicological Effects of Methyl mercury. National Academy Press: Washington, DC, 2000.

Naylor GJ, Sheperd B, Treliving L, McHarg A, Smith A, Ward N, Harper M. Tissue aluminum concentrations stability over time, relationship to age, and dietary intake. Biol Psychiat. 1990; 27:884-90.

Nielsen JB, Andersen O, Grandjean P. Evaluation of mercury in hair, blood and muscle as biomarkers for methylmercury exposure in male and female mice. Arch Toxicol. 1994; 68(5):317-21.

Nowak B. Contents and relationship of elements in human hair for a non-industrialised population in Poland. Sci Total Environ. 1998 Jan 8; 209(1):59-68.

Nowak B. Occurrence of heavy metals, sodium, calcium, and potassium in human hair, teeth, and nails. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1996 Apr; 52(1):11-22.

Nowak B, Chmielnicka J. Relationship of lead and cadmium to essential elements in hair, teeth, and nails of environmentally exposed people. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2000 Jul; 46(3):265-74.

Nowak B, Kozlowski H. Heavy metals in human hair and teeth: the correlation with metal concentrations in the environment. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1998 Jun; 62(3):213-28.

Ojo JO, Oluwole AF, Durosinmi MA, Asubiojo OI, Akanle OA, Spyrou NM. Correlations between trace element levels in head hair and blood components of Nigerian subjects. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1994; 43-45:453-9.

Okamoto K, Morita M, Quan H, Uehiro T, Fuwa K. Preparation and certification of human hair powdered reference material. Clin Chem. 1985; 31:1592-7.

Othman I , Spyrou NM. The abundance of some elements in hair and nail from the Machakos District of Kenya. Sci Total Environ. 1980; 16:267-78.

Paschal DC, DiPietro ES, Phillips DL, Gunter EW. Age dependence of metals in hair in a selected U.S. population. Environ Res. 1989 Feb; 48(1):17-28.

Pellizzari ED, Fernando R, Cramer GM, Meaburn GM, Bangerter K. Analysis of mercury in hair of EPA Region V population. J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol. 1999 Sep-Oct; 9(5):393-401.

Perrone L, Moro R, Caroli M, Di Toro R, Gialanella G. Trace elements in hair of healthy children sampled by age and sex. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1996 Jan; 51(1):71-6.

Piccinini R, Candela S, Messori M, Viappiani F. Blood and hair lead levels in 6-year old children according to their parents' occupation. G Ital Med Lav. 1986 Mar; 8(2):65-8.

Pihl RO, Drake H, Vrana F. Department of Psychology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada: Hair Analysis in Learning and Behavior Problems. In: Hair, Trace Elements, and Human Illness. Brown AC, Crounse RG, editors. Praeger Publications, 1980.

Pineau A, Guillard O, Huguet F, Spech M, Gelot S, Boiteau H. An evaluation of the biological significance of aluminum in plasma and hair of patients on long-term hemodialysis. Eur J Pharmacol. 1993; 228:263-8.

Ponce RA et al. Uncertainty analysis methods for comparing predictive models and biomarkers: a case study of dietary methyl mercury exposure. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 1998; 28(2):96-105.

Pounds CA, Pearson EF, Turner TD. Arsenic in fingernails. J For Sci Soc. 1979; 19:165-73.

Puchyr R, Bass D, Gajewski R, Calvin M, Marquardt W, Urek K, Druyan ME, Quig DW. Preparation of hair for measurement of elements by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Biol Trace Elem Res. 1998; 62(3):167-182.

Rabinowitz M, Wetherill G, Kopple J. Delayed appearance of tracer lead in facial hair. Arch Environ Health. 1976; 31:220-3.

Raghupathy L, Harada M, Ohno H, Naganuma A, Imura N, Doi R. Methods of removing external metal contamination from hair samples for environmental monitoring. Sci Total Environ. 1988 Dec; 77(2-3):141-51.

Reid R et al. Society of Forensic Toxicologists meeting, Snowbird, UT. 2000.

Renshaw GD, Pounds CA, Pearson EF. Variation in lead concentration along single hairs as measured by noon-flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Nature. 1972; 238:162-3.

Rivlin RS. Misuse of hair analysis for nutritional assessment. Amer J Med. 1983; 75:489-93.

Roberts DJ, Green P. Adsorption of cadmium onto human hair. Sci Total Environ. 1985 Mar 15; 42(1-2):207-11.

Rockway SW, Weber CW, Lei KY, Kemberling SR. Lead concentrations of milk, blood, and hair in lactating women. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 1984; 53(3):181-7.

Rollins D et al. Society of Forensic Toxicologists meeting, Snowbird, UT. 2000.

Rothe M et al. Effect of pigmentation on the drug deposition in hair of grey-haired subjects. Forensic Sci Int. 1997 Jan 17; 84(1-3):53-60.

Ryabuhkin YS. Activation analysis of hair as an indicator of contamination of man by environmental trace element pollutants. Vienna: International Atomic Energy Agency, Report 50, 1978.

Ryan R, Terry C. Toxicology Desk Reference: The Toxic Exposure and Medical Monitoring Index, 3rd ed., Taylor & Francis; 1996.

Sachs H. Theoretical limits of the evaluation of drug concentrations in hair due to irregular hair growth. Forensic Sci Int. 1995 Jan 5; 70(1-3):53-61.

Sakai T, Wariishi M, Nishiyama K. Changes in trace element concentrations in hair of growing children. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2000; 77:43-51.

Sakamoto T, Tanaka A, Nakahara Y. Journal of Analytical Toxicology. 1996; 20:124-30.

Salbe AD, Levander OA. Effect of various dietary factors on the deposition of selenium in the hair and nails of rats. J Nutr. 1990; 120:200-6.

Salmela S, Vuori E, Kilpoio JO. The effect of washing procedures on trace element content of human hair. Anal Chim Acta. 1981; 125:131-7.

Sato R, Uematsu T, Sato R, Yamaguchi S, Nakashima M. Human scalp hair as evidence of individual dosage history of haloperidol: prospective study. Ther Drug Monit. 1989 Nov; 11(6):686-91.

Schlegel-Zawadzka M. Chromium content in the hair of children and students in southern Poland. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1992 Jan-Mar; 32:79-84.

Schuhmacher M, Belles M, Rico A, Domingo JL, Corbella J. Impact of reduction of lead in gasoline on the blood and hair lead levels in the population of Tarragona Province, Spain, 1990-1995. Sci Total Environ. 1996 May 31; 184(3):203-9.

Schuhmacher M, Domingo JL, Llobet JM, Corbella J. Lead in children's hair, as related to exposure in Tarragona Province, Spain. Sci Total Environ. 1991 May 15; 104(3):167-73.

Schweinsberg F, Baron P, Hahn W, Hermann U, Tausch-Walz G. [Determination and assessment of the content of lead, cadmium and mercury in hair, nails and organs of persons in clean and polluted areas]. Schriftenr Ver Wasser Boden Lufthyg. 1987; 71:91-100. German.

Seidel S, Kreutzer R, Smith D, McNeel S, Gilliss D. Assessment of commercial laboratories performing hair mineral analysis. JAMA. 2001 Jan. 3; 285(1):67-72.

Sen J, Chaudhuri AB. Human hair lead and copper levels in three occupationally unexposed population groups in Calcutta. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 1996 Aug; 57(2):321-6.

Shanghai Inst. Nuclear Res. Certification of Certified Reference Material, Human Hair (GBW 09101). Shanghai: State Bureau Technical Supervision; 1988.

Sharnes RS, Adelman DC. Clinical immunology. In: LaDou J, ed., Occupational & Environmental Medicine. 2nd ed. Stamford, CT: Appleton & Lange; 1997:196-99.

Sheard EA, Johnson MK, Cater, RJ. The Determination of Chromium in Hair and Other Biological Material. Hair, Trace Elements and Human Illness. New York, NY: Praeger; 1980.

Sherertz EC. Misuse of hair analysis as a diagnostic tool. Arch Dermatol. 1985 Dec; 121(12):1504-5. Editorial.

Sherlock JD, Lindasy DG, Hislop JE, Evans WH, Collier TR. Archives Environ Health. 1982; 37:271-8.

Shi CY, Lane AT, Clarkson TW. Uptake of mercury by the hair of methylmercury-treated newborn mice. Environ Res. 1990 Apr; 51(2):170-81.

Shimojo N, Homma-Takeda S, Ohuchi K, Shinyashiki M, Sun GF, Kumagai Y. Mercury dynamics in hair of rats exposed to methylmercury by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence imaging. Life Sci. 1997; 60(23):2129-37.

Shinohara A, Chiba M, Inaba Y. Determination of germanium in human specimens: comparative study of atomic absorption spectrometry and microwave-induced plasma mass spectrometry. J Anal Toxicol. 1999; 23:625-31.

Sikorski R, Paszkowski T, Szprengier-Juszkiewicz T. Mercury in neonatal scalp hair. Sci Total Environ. 1986 Dec 1; 57:105-10.

Sky-Peck HH. Distribution of trace elements in human hair. Clin Physiol Biochem. 1990; 8(2):70-80.

Smith H. The interpretation of the arsenic content of human hair. J For Sci Soc. 1964; 4:192-9.

Smith JC, Allen PV, Von Burg R. Hair methylmercury levels in U.S. women. Arch Environ Health. 1997 Nov-Dec; 52(6):476-80.

Soria ML, Sanz P, Martinez D, Lopez-Artiguez M, Garrido R, Grilo A, Repetto M. Total mercury and methylmercury in hair, maternal and umbilical blood, and placenta from women in the Seville area. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 1992 Apr; 48(4):494-501.

Srivastava AK, Gupta BN. The role of human hairs in health and disease with special reference to environmental exposures. Vet Hum Toxicol. 1994 Dec; 36(6):556-60. Review.

Steindel SJ, Howanitz PJ. The uncertainty of hair analysis for trace metals. JAMA. 2001 Jan. 3; 285(1):83-5. Editorial.

Stephenson J. X-ray analysis of hair reveals breast cancer. JAMA. 1999 May 5 ;281(17):1578-9.

Suzuki T. Hair and nails: advantages and pitfalls when used in biological monitoring. In: Clarkson TW, Friberg L, Nordberg GF, Sager PR, eds. Biological Monitoring of Toxic Metals. New York, NY: Plenum Press; 1988:623-640.

Taneja SK, Mohajan M, Gupta S, Singh KP. Assessment of copper and zinc status in hair and urine of young women descendants of NIDDM parents. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1998; 62:255-64.

Takeuchi T, Nakano Y, Aoki A, Ohmori S, Kasuya M. Elemental concentrations in hair of inhabitants of a cadmium-polluted area. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1990 Jul-Dec; 26-27:263-8.

Taylor A. Usefulness of measurements of trace elements in hair. Ann Clin Biochem. 1986;23:364-378.

Teresa M, Vasconcelos SD, Tavares HMF. Trace element concentrations in blood and hair of young apprentices of a technical-professional school. Sci Total Environ. 1997; 205:189-99.

Tietz Fundamentals of Clinical Chemistry, 4th ed, W.B. Saunders Co; 1996:773-828.

Tracqui A, Bosque MA, Costa V, Kintz P, Siegel F, Mangin P. Lack of relationship between hair lead levels and some usual markers (blood lead levels, ZPP, urinary ALA-D) in occupationally exposed workers. Ann Biol Clin (Paris). 1994; 52(11):769-73.

Trinchi V, Nobis M, Cecchele D. Emission spectrophotometric analysis of titanium, aluminum, and vanadium levels in the blood, urine, and hair of patients with total hip arthroplasties. Ital J Orthop Traumatol. 1992;18:331-9.

Tsalev DL. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry in Occupational and Environmental Health Practice. Boca Raton, FL: CRC, 1995.

Tshiashala MD, Kabengele K, Lumu BM. Trace element determination in scalp hair of people working at a copper smelter. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1990 Jul-Dec; 26-7:287-94.

Valentine JL, King HK, Spivey G. Arsenic levels in human blood, urine, and hair in response to exposure via drinking water. Environ Res. 1979; 20:24-32.

Van den Berg AJ, de Bruin M, Hortman JPW. Sorption behavior of trace elements in human hair. In: Nuclear Activation Techniques in the Life Sciences. Vienna, IAEA; 1967:661-74.

Van den Berg AJ, de Geoij JJM, Houtman JPW et al. Arsenic content of human hair after washing as determined by activation analysis. In: DeVoe JR, ed. Modern Trends in Activation Analysis, Vol. I. Washington, DC: NBS; 1968:272-82.

Vance DE, Ehmann WD, Markesbery WR. Trace element content in fingernails and hair of a nonindustrialized US control population. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1988 Sep-Dec; 17:109-21.

Vienna A, Capucci E, Wolfsperger M, Hauser G. Heavy metal concentration in hair of students in Rome. Anthropol Anz. 1995 Mar; 53(1):27-32.

Vir SC, Love AHG. Zinc and copper nutritive of women taking oral contraceptive agents. Am J Clin Nutr. 1981 34:1479-83.

Watt F, Landsberg J, Powell JJ, Ede RJ, Thompson RP, Cargnello JA. Analysis of copper and lead in hair using the nuclear microscope; results from normal subjects, and patients with Wilson's disease and lead poisoning. Analyst. 1995 Mar; 120(3):789-91.

Wennig R. Potential problems with the interpretation of hair analysis results. Forensic Sci Int. 2000 Jan 10; 107(1-3):5-12. Review.

Wibowo AE, Herber RM, Das HA, Roeleveld N, Zielhuis RL. Environmental Research. 1986; 40:346-56.

Wilhelm M, Idel H. Hair analysis in environmental medicine. Zeutralblatt for Hygiene Umweltmedizin. 1996 Jul; 198(6):485-501. Review.

Wilhelm M, Lombeck I, Ohnesorge FK. Cadmium, copper, lead and zinc concentrations in hair and toenails of young children and family members: a follow-up study. Sci Total Environ. 1994 Jan 25; 141(1-3):275-80.

Wilhelm M, Hafner D, Lombeck I, Ohnesorge FK. Monitoring of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc status in young children using toenails: comparison with scalp hair. Sci Total Environ. 1991 Apr 15; 103(2-3):199-207.

Wilhelm M, Ohnesorge FK, Hotzel D. Cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc concentrations in human scalp and pubic hair. Sci Total Environ. 1990 Mar; 92:199-206.

Wilhelm M, Lombeck I, Hafner D, Ohnesorge FK. Hair lead levels in young children from the FRG. J Trace Elem Electrolytes Health Dis. 1989 Sep; 3(3):165-70.

Wilhelm M, Ohnesorge FK, Lombeck I et al. Uptake of aluminum, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc by human scalp hair and elution of the absorbed dose. J Anal Toxicol. 1989; 13:17-21

Wilhelm M, Passlick J, Busch T, Szydlik M, Ohnesorge FK. Scalp hair as an indicator of aluminum exposure: comparison to bone and plasma. Hum Toxicol. 1989; 8:5-9.

Wolfsperger M, Hauser G, Gossler W, Schlagenhaufen C. Heavy metals in human hair samples from Austria and Italy: influence of sex and smoking habits. Sci Total Environ. 1994 Dec 1; 156(3):235-42.

Wood RJ. Assessment of marginal zinc status in human. J Nutr 2000; 130:135S-1354S.

World Health Organization. Biological Monitoring of Metals. Geneva: WHO; 1994.

Yamamoto R, Suzuki T. Effects of artificial hair-waving on hair mercury values. Int Arch Occup Environ Hlth. 1978; 42:1-9.

Yamauchi H, Takahashi K, Mashiko M, Yamamura Y. Biological monitoring of arsenic exposure of gallium arsenide- and inorganic arsenic-exposed workers by determination of inorganic arsenic and its metabolites in urine and hair. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J. 1989 Nov; 50(11):606-12.

Young EG, Rice FAH: On the occurrence of arsenic in human hair and its medicological significance. J Lab Clin Med. 1944; 29:439-46.

Yoshinaga J, Imai H, Nakazawa M, Suzuki T, Morita M. Lack of significantly positive correlations between elemental concentrations in hair and in organs. Sci Total Environ. 1990 Dec 1; 99(1-2):125-35.

Zareba G, Goldsmith LA, Clarkson TW. Application of hair analysis for biological monitoring of toxic substances in space. SAE Technical Paper Series 932095, Warrendale, PA. 1993.

Zeng L, Pang H, Liu C. [Analysis of human hair lead and zinc during various physiological periods]. Chung Hua Yu Fang I Hsueh Tsa Chih. 1996 Jul; 30(4):213-6. Chinese.

Zhang F, Bi S, Zhang J, Bian N, Lui F, Yang Y. Differential pulse voltametric indirect determination of aluminum in drinking waters, blood, urine, hair, and medicament samples using L-dopa under alkaline conditions. Analyst. 2000; 125:1299-302.

Zhuang GS, Wang YS, Tan MG, Zhi M, Pan WQ, Cheng YD. Preliminary study of the distribution of the toxic elements As, Cd, and Hg in human hair and tissues by RNAA. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1990 Jul-Dec; 26-27:729-36.

Zlotkin SH. Hair analysis: a useful tool or a waste of money? Int J Dermatol. 1985 Apr; 24(3):161-4. Commentary.

http://www.doctorsdata.com/RESPONSE.HTM (Initial response to the recent JAMA article on hair analysis, dated January 8, 2001)

http://www.ctq.qc.ca/icpms.html (Centre de Toxicologie du Quebec's Interlaboratory ICP-MS Comparison Program)


Next | Table of Contents

Top of Page

 
Contact Us:
  • Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
    4770 Buford Hwy NE
    Atlanta, GA 30341
  • 800-CDC-INFO
    (800-232-4636)
    TTY: (888) 232-6348
    Contact CDC-INFO
  • New Hours of Operation
    8am-8pm ET/Monday-Friday
    Closed Holidays
USA.gov: The U.S. Government's Official Web PortalDepartment of Health and Human Services
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 4770 Buford Hwy NE, Atlanta, GA 30341
Contact CDC: 800-232-4636 / TTY: 888-232-6348

A-Z Index

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D
  5. E
  6. F
  7. G
  8. H
  9. I
  10. J
  11. K
  12. L
  13. M
  14. N
  15. O
  16. P
  17. Q
  18. R
  19. S
  20. T
  21. U
  22. V
  23. W
  24. X
  25. Y
  26. Z
  27. #