What Are Routes of Exposure to Nitrates and Nitrites?
The primary routes of exposure to nitrates and nitrites may differ depending on occupational and non-occupational factors. Non-occupational factors may include
- Hobbies (such as gardening, arc welding, etc.),
- History of inhalational drug use,
- Source of drinking/cooking water and how it is supplied,
- Outdoor activities, as well as
- The chemical form of the nitrates and nitrites.
Occupational exposure occurs primarily through the inhalation and dermal routes. Explosive and fertilizer industry workers may be exposed to nitrate through inhalation of dusts containing nitrate salts. Dusts can also dissolve in sweat exposing skin to concentrated solutions of the salts. Farmers may experience periodic exposures depending on their activities, especially with regard to the handling of fertilizers. Exposure of family members to nitrates from dusts brought home on work clothes has been reported [Rosenman 2007].
The primary route of non-occupational exposure is ingestion of water or foodstuffs that contain high levels of nitrates or nitrites. Inhalation exposures may occur from inhalant drug use and dermal exposures may occur from some topical medications. These would be special instances and not the primary routes of exposure for the general population.
- Primary occupational routes of exposure to nitrates and nitrites include inhalation and dermal routes.
- The primary route of exposure to nitrates and nitrites for the general population is ingestion.
- Inhalation and dermal exposures have been reported in non-occupational settings under certain circumstances, but are not the primary routes of exposure for the general population.