Elements of an Evaluation Design
Every formal design—whether formative, process, outcome, impact, or a combination—must contain eight basic elements.
1. A Statement of Communication ObjectivesUnless there is an adequate definition of desired achievements, evaluation cannot measure them. Evaluators need clear and definite objectives in order to measure program effects.
2. Definition of Data To Be CollectedThis is the determination of what is to be measured in relation to the objectives.
3. MethodologyA study design is formulated to permit measurement in a valid and reliable manner.
4. InstrumentationData collection instruments are designed and pretested. These instruments range from simple tally sheets for counting public inquiries to complex survey and interview forms.
5. Data CollectionThe actual process of gathering information.
6. Data ProcessingPutting the information into a usable form for analysis.
7. Data AnalysisThe application of statistical techniques to the information to discover significant relationships.
Compiling and recording evaluation results. These results rarely pronounce a program a complete success or failure. To some extent, all programs have good elements and bad. It is important to appreciate that lessons can be learned from both if results are properly analyzed. These lessons should be applied to altering the existing program or as a guide to planning new efforts.